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ReliefWeb - Updates on Sierra Leone

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Mixed Migration Centre
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo

    This 4Mi snapshot is a continuation of the snapshot published in September 2018 on profiles and reasons for departure of refugees and migrants from West Africa. It is also based on data collected between 1 January and 31 July 2018.

    During this period, 2,184 refugees and migrants were interviewed by 4Mi in West Africa, in Mali (Mopti, Gao and Timbuktu), Niger (Niamey and Agadez) and Burkina Faso (Dori and Bobo Dioulasso).

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    Source: CARE, George Washington University, International Rescue Committee
    Country: Nepal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, World

    Executive summary


    The United Nations (UN) has long highlighted the importance of addressing women’s rights concerns in relation to armed conflict and state-building and peace-building (SBPB) efforts.
    However, the gendered nature of SBPB processes are often overlooked, despite the ways in which gender power relations are present in and can affect the success or failure of SBPB (Strickland and Duvvury, 2003).

    Calls for the inclusion of women in peace processes have prompted a burgeoning response. This has included the adoption of related global policy instruments and international and local actors utilising humanitarian and post-conflict programming to provide services for the survivors of violence against women and girls (VAWG).
    At the same time, a focus on securing stability and peace in the aftermath of armed conflicts has prompted a range of global policy initiatives. Key par ties involved in this work have been international governments and the UN system and its par tners.

    It is evident that international and national approaches to prevent and respond to VAWG and SBPB processes often exist in parallel to one another; however, evidence shows that state-centric SBPB strategies consistently neglect issues of gender equality and VAWG (Castilejo, 2012; Handrahan, 2004; Zuckerman & Greenberg, 2004). This study aims to contribute a new set of evidence and an analysis of the intersections between VAWG and SBPB. It’s hoped these will inform future conflict and post-conflict SBPB to ensure they are more effective at addressing VAWG, and par ticularly forms of VAWG that act as barriers to peace and stability.

    The research questions

    This study has been conducted as par t of the What Works to What Works to Prevent VAWG in Conflict and Humanitarian Crises programme. It is funded by the UK government and focuses on two overarching research questions:

    1) How have programmes and policies to prevent and respond to VAWG been integrated and addressed within post-conflict state-building policy and programming?

    2) In a conflict-affected country, how is VAWG related to effor ts to achieve peace and stability?

    A conceptual framework linking state-building and peace-building and violence against women and girls

    In order to frame the research, two overarching analytical models were developed. First, an ecological model examining the risk factors related to VAWG in conflict settings. An analytical framework is often used in social and epidemiological research to understand multiple, interconnected levels of risks that contribute to health outcomes, for example, risks encountered at a societal, community and individual level. The new framework brings together the knowledge base from existing literature (both empirical and theoretical) of posited drivers of VAWG within and outside times of armed conflict. These drivers include endemic factors that lead to VAWG during conflict and peacetime, and drivers identified as distinctive to or associated with conflict.

    After this ecological model was developed, a fur ther analytical model was created to bring together the divergent academic and practitioner spheres of VAWG and SBPB. This features:

    • causal drivers of VAWG, including those specifically related to conflict and post-conflict dynamics

    • critical components of state-building processes, and where and how VAWG might be addressed

    • critical components of peace-building processes, and where and how VAWG might be addressed.

    The analytical framework attempts to address the way SBPB strategies may affect VAWG and how VAWG may cause continued conflict and fragility. The framework draws on the Depar tment for International Development’s (DFID) Integrated Building Peaceful States and Societies model (DFID and UK Aid, 2016) as an overarching conceptual basis.

    Case study development

    The study aims to identify and explore the linkages and interconnections between VAWG and SBPB processes in different contexts and draw lessons from best practices and gaps. To achieve this, case studies were developed for South Sudan, Nepal and Sierra Leone. These countries were selected to ensure a breadth of experiences in terms of the nature of the conflict and patterns of violence, experiences of VAWG, geographic diversity (spanning West Africa, East Africa and Asia), length of time since the conflict ended, and progress in SBPB.

    These case studies utilise the analytical framework as a conceptual basis for understanding connections between SBPB and VAWG. Following the completion of a country level literature review, primary data was collected. This involved interviews and focus group discussions with informants from key stakeholder groups, including representatives from non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the United Nations (UN), the government and civil society. The findings of the three case studies were analysed and compared for common themes and trends. These were then organised according to the SBPB and VAWG analytical framework previously developed and key findings from each case study consolidated in this repor t.

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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World

    Some 180 veterinarians drawn from 14 African countries will benefit from a training programme, In-Service Applied Veterinary Epidemiology (ISAVET), launched today by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the Institute for Infectious Animal Diseases (IIAD), part of Texas A&M AgriLife Research.

    The countries involved include Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Uganda.

    The trainings will be held over the next 12 months and will operate within an approach involving public, animal and wildlife health as well as for pathogens that cross institutional mandates and geographic boundaries. Approximately 60 trainees will graduate from the trainings in 2018, the first of which will be held in October in Uganda. An additional 120 trainees are expected to graduate from the subsequent trainings in 2019.

    FAO's Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) and IIAD will lead the development and implementation of the curriculum, in collaboration with the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (CVM) and working closely with public health, and local partners.

    "This in-service training for veterinary epidemiologists is a good model for future sustainability as once we have built in the momentum together, it can be led and expanded by local and continental veterinary institutions," said Juan Lubroth, Chief Veterinary Officer FAO. "What is important here is that it is based on practical, applied, issues relevant to the country, where one ‘learns by doing'".

    "We are pleased to take such an important supporting role in frontline defense of diseases that could impact both animals and humans internationally," said Dr. Melissa Berquist, IIAD director.

    The project also will develop a network of trainers and mentors from Africa. Frontline veterinary field epidemiologists are responsible for conducting effective and timely surveillance and outbreak response for endemic and emerging infectious diseases, as well as transboundary animal diseases. The frontline In-Service Applied Veterinary Epidemiology initiative in Africa follows a similar initiative started 10 years ago in Asia, which now has established training centers in Thailand, China, and Indonesia.

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    Source: International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Summary of major revisions made to emergency plan of action:

    The Emergency Appeal (EA) MDRSL005 was launched in June 2014 for 880,000 Swiss francs to support the Ebola response in shelter, health and care, food security and Livelihood, WATSAN, DRR and national society capacity building. Eight further revisions to the EA were made; the first revision was done in July 2014 for 1.36m Swiss francs. The second revision done in September and October 2014 for 12.85m Swiss francs, followed by third revision for 41.1m Swiss francs. The EA was further revised in March and June 2015 for 56.8m Swiss francs, followed by Appeal revision n° 5 for 95.0m Swiss francs to extend from emergency to recovery phase. The final two revisions were made in April 2016 and July 2017 seeking a total of 90.5m Swiss francs and 64.3 m Swiss francs for 6.3m people respectively.

    The different revisions to the EA enabled IFRC to support SLRCS both during response and in meeting the immediate recovery needs of communities and individuals most affected by Ebola, and to support their transition to resilient communities. The extension ensured successful completion of some remaining activities. The key focus of capacity building were finance and logistics management strengthening, that enable SLRCS be in a better position to efficiently and effectively deliver programs. Finance management strengthening activities was based on the finance capacity assessment conducted in February 2017. Finance management strengthening was supported by the British Red Cross, as they have a well-established in country delegation and commitment to longer-term presence in Sierra Leone.

    The extension period provided the opportunity to SLRCS/IFRC to successfullyThe greatest milestone during the extension was the opportunity for SLRCS/IFRC to successfully complete the construction of the two warehouses in Bo and Waterloo towns. This has given the SLRCS the capacity to preposition both non-food items and Ebola response stocks at strategic locations within the country, allowing them to respond to emergencies in a faster and more efficient manner.

    This operation closed with total expenditure of CHF58,280,413 which represent 91% of the total appeal budget and 97% of the total income.

    As per the financial report attach, this operation closed with a balance of CHF1,932,239, available balance for country operation plan is CHF1,872,394 after the outstanding pledge of CHF59,935 will be written-off.

    The International Federation seeks approval from its donors to reallocate this balance to the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) Outbreak to support Sierra Leone Operational Plan focused on Disaster Risk Reduction and Livelihood Strengthening programs including Cash Transfers to vulnerable groups and support to Sierra Leone Red CrossNational Society transformation plan. Partners/donors who have any questions in regard to this balance are kindly requested to contact Mr. Younos Abdul Karim, Head of Country Office ( within 30 days of publication of this final report. Pass this date the reallocation will be processed as indicated.

    Details of allocation breakdown to country operational plan (CoP) of 2018/2019 are presented below:

    • CHF500,000 to be allocated to the ongoing 2018 CoP of Sierra Leone which is focused on Disaster Risk Reduction.
    • CHF1,372,394 to be allocated to 2019 COP of Sierra Leone with the following planning:
    • CHF400,000 to Disaster Risk Reduction and Livelihood Strengthening including Cash Transfers to vulnerable groups.
    • CHF600,000 to the Sierra Leone Transformation Plan which is a wide-ranging plan to improve the governance and management, quality, impact and efficiency of the Sierra Leone Red Cross Society thereby strengthening its humanitarian impact nationally.
    • CHF372,394 will go to strengthening IFRC Sierra Leone Country operations including Monitoring and Reporting, effective risk management and internal controls, HR strengthening and salaries

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes quinquennales, qui indiquent les tendances saisonnières, et aux prix de l'année précédente.

    L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.

    Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2) Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Serra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3) Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.

    Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé.

    (2) Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    West Africa can be divided into three agro -ecological zones or three different trade basins (West Basin, Central Basin and East Basin). Both important for understanding market behavior and dynamics.

    The three major agro-ecological zones are the Sahelian, the Sudanese and the Coastal zones where production and consumption can be easily classified. (1) In the Sahelian zone, millet is the principal cereal cultivated and consumed particularly in rural areas and increasingly, when accessible, in urban areas. Exceptions include Cape Verde where maize and rice are most important, Mauritania where sorghum and maize are staples, and Senegal with rice. The principal substitutes in the Sahel are sorghum, rice, and cassava flour (Gari), the latter two in times of shortage. (2) In the Sudanese zone (southern Chad, central Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, southern Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Serra Leone, Liberia) maize and sorghum constitute the principal cereals consumed by the majority of the population. They are followed by rice and tubers, particularly cassava and yam. (3) In the Coastal zone, with two rainy seasons, yam and maize constitute the most important food products . They are supplemented by cowpea, which is a significant source of protein.

    The three trade basins are known as the West, Central, and East basins. In addition to the north to south movement of particular commodities, certain cereals flow horizontally. (1) The West basin refers to Mauritania, Senegal, western Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and The Gambia where rice is most heavily traded. (2) The Central basin consists of Côte d'Ivoire, central and eastern Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Togo where maize is commonly traded. (3) The East basin refers to Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Benin where millet is traded most frequently. These three trade basins are shown on the map above.

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    Source: ECOWAS
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Abuja, 2nd November, 2018. The Commission of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) have validated the ECOWAS Plan of Action on the implementation of the International Humanitarian Law (IHL) (2019-2023) in a four-day consultative meeting which ended on 2nd November 2018 in Abuja, Nigeria.

    The Plan of Action seeks to ensure that International Humanitarian Laws are observed during armed conflict in the region thereby protecting the fundamental human rights of community citizen.

    A key way to achieve this as stipulated by the validated Plan of Action is to disseminate information to security agencies and armed forces of Member States about the IHL, sensitize Civil Society Organizations, Non-Governmental Organizations and the judiciary as well as include IHL to school curriculums in the region.

    The participants also recommended that Member States implement the ECOWAS IHL Plan of Action at the national level by integrating it in their national IHL strategies which will enable the Commission attain its goal of implementing IHL in the region.

    While addressing participants of the meeting, the Commissioner for Social Affairs and Gender of the ECOWAS Commission, Dr. Siga Fatima Jagne stated that IHL being an extension of the rule of law in situations of armed conflict ought to be observed in West Africa due to the catastrophic effect such conflicts have had in region.

    The Commissioner stated that the validation of the Plan of Action and its concerted implementation will contribute in no small part to achieving the human security vision of the Commission as reflected in the ECOWAS Conflict Prevention Framework.

    She further informed participants of the meeting that the Plan of Action will be presented to the ECOWAS Council of Ministers for adoption and subsequently to the Authority of Heads of States and Government for approval.

    “The Plan of Action will serve as a basis for political and legal accountability for all of West Africa” She said.

    Also speaking during the meeting, Ambassador Babatunde Nurudeen, the Permanent Representative of Nigeria to ECOWAS highlighted the protection of children, the eradication of sexual violence, issues related to migration and the welfare of Internally Displace People (IDPs), the protection of health care and the Red Cross emblem, counter-terrorism and arms control as key components of the Plan of Action which were reviewed.

    The Head of the ICRC delegation to ECOWAS, Eloi Fillion reaffirmed the commitment of the ICRC to provide technical assistance to Member states where required in the implementation of the Plan of Action.

    Similarly the representative of the Nigerian Minister for Foreign Affairs Joseph Udo Oyi, assured Member States of Nigeria’s support in the implementation of the Plan of Action.

    Mr. Oyi stressed that, even though Nigeria is facing a lot of cases of terrorism, it is still committed to respecting IHL and human rights while addressing those challenges.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    L’OIM travaille avec les autorités nationales, locales et des partenaires locaux, afin de mieux comprendre et connaître les mouvements migratoires à travers l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. Le suivi des flux de population (FMP) est une activité qui permet de quantifier et de qualifier les flux, les profils des migrants, les tendances et les routes migratoires sur un point d’entrée, de transit ou de sortie donné. En Guinée, 5 points de suivi ont été installés depuis avril 2017 dans les localités frontalières avec le Mali et le Sénégal dont 3 sont actifs à ce jour. Il s’agit des localités de Kouremalé, Nafadji et Boundoufourdou où l’on observe les mouvements des voyageurs. Au cours des trois derniers mois une enquête a été effectuée dans les 3 points dont les résultats sont présentés à la dernière page. La proportion des mineurs non accompagnés observés sur l’ensemble des points de suivi des flux est moins de 1%.

    Cette infographie est un résumé des données collectées sur l’ensemble des points de suivi au cours du mois de septembre 2018. Au cours de ce mois, Bamako, Dakar, Conakry, Labé et Manda ont été non seulement les principales villes de départ mais aussi les principales destinations ayant enregistré plus de 1 000 voyageurs.

    Les flux observés au cours de ce mois ont montré des pics hebdomadaires qui correspondent aux jours de marché. Deux principaux moyens de transport ont été identifiés: les voitures (88% des flux) et les bus (11% des flux). La principale nationalité observée au cours de ce mois est Guinéenne. En Guinée, les mouvements migratoires principaux parmi les individus observés sont: 47% se déplacent pour la migration économique à long terme, 42% pour la migration à court terme, 5% pratiquent la migration saisonnière et 4% pour le tourisme.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo

    IOM works with national and local authorities and local partners to identify and understand migration movements in West and Central Africa. Flow monitoring is an activity that quantifies and qualifies flows, migrant profiles, trends and migration routes at a given point of entry, transit or exit. Since February 2016, IOM Niger has been monitoring migration flows at two points across Niger: Séguédine and Arlit. The data collected provides an overview of migration in the region. The information is collected from primary sources. However, this monitoring of migration flows does not replace border surveillance. Similarly, the results presented in this report do not reflect the total flow of migrants through the Agadez region due to the size of the Sahara Desert, which covers more than 700,000 km2 and has a large number of roads crisscrossing the region.

    In addition to the 3 FMPs (Dan Barto, Magaria and Tahoua) activated in August, a new FMP was also set up in Niger (Dan Issa) in September. The aim was to better understand migration routes along the southern part of Niger and to complement the existing FMPs in Arlit and Séguédine. There are now three cross border FMPs (Dan Issa, Dan Barto and Magaria) on the border between Niger and Nigeria, which stretches over 1000 km. The FMP at Tahoua was set up to help understand internal movement flows as it is situated in central Niger, sharing a border with the Tillabery region in the east, Nigeria in the south and the Agadez region in the north.

    The four new FMPs will be piloted in the coming months to understand the added value of the FMPs towards a more holistic understanding of migration trends in Niger. Based on the initial findings from the new FMPs, there may be adjustments made to the new FMPs based on an increased understanding of migration patterns and routes.

    METHODOLOGY : Flow monitoring is an investigative work that aims to highlight and increase understanding of internal, cross-border and intraregional migration. Areas of high mobility are identified across the country. DTM teams then conduct assessments at the local level to identify strategic transit points. Enumerators collect data using key informants at the flow monitoring points; they may be staff at bus stations, police or customs officials, bus or truck drivers or migrants themselves. A basic questionnaire mixed with direct observations makes it possible to collect disaggregated data by sex and nationality. In Niger, the flow monitoring points were chosen after consultation with national and local stakeholders involved in migration management, and according to the locations and characteristics of the flows transiting through the Sahara Desert. The data collection is done at times when the flows are the most frequent.

    LIMITS : The data used in this analysis including the maps is an estimate and represents only a part of the existing flows on the routes Agadez - Arlit – Assamaka; Agadez - Séguédine – Sebha; and southern routes. The spatial and temporal coverage of these surveys is partial, although the collection is done daily and during periods when flows are significant. Finally, no information is collected on existing flows outside the times covered. Vulnerability data is based on direct observations by the enumerators and should be understood only as an estimate.

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo

    L’OIM travaille avec les autorités nationales et locales et des partenaires locaux pour identifier et comprendre les mouvements migratoires en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. Le suivi des flux de population (FMP) est une activité qui permet de quantifier et de qualifier les flux, les profils des migrants, les tendances et les routes migratoires sur un point d’entrée, de transit ou de sortie donné. Depuis février 2016, l'OIM Niger effectue un suivi des flux migratoires sur deux points dans la région d'Agadez au Niger: à Séguédine et à Arlit.

    Les données collectées fournissent un aperçu des mouvements migratoires dans la région. Les informations sont collectées à partir de sources primaires. Toutefois, ce suivi des flux migratoires ne remplace pas la surveillance des frontières. De même, les résultats présentés dans ce rapport ne reflètent pas la totalité des flux traversant la région d’Agadez du fait de l’immensité du désert du Sahara qui couvre plus de 700 000 km2 et de la multitude des voies de contournement.

    Hormis les 3 FMPs (Dan Barto, Magaria et Tahoua) activés en Aout, un nouveau FMP a été activé en Septembre au Niger (Dan Issa). Le but est de mieux comprendre les routes migratoires dans la partie sud du Niger pour compléter les FMP existants à Arlit et Séguédine. Trois FMP transfrontaliers ont été installés à la frontière (Dan Issa, Dan Barto et Magaria) entre le Niger et le Nigéria, qui s'étend sur plus de 1 000 km. Le FMP de Tahoua a été activé pour aider à comprendre les flux transitoires internes car il est situé dans le centre du Niger et partage la frontière avec la région de Tillabery à l'est, le Nigeria au sud et la région d'Agadez et l’Algérie au nord.

    MÉTHODOLOGIE: Le suivi des flux de population (FMP) est un travail d’enquêtes qui vise à mettre en lumière les zones particulièrement sujettes aux migrations transfrontalières et intra régionales. Dans un premier temps, les zones de forte mobilité sont identifiées à l’échelle du pays. Les équipes DTM conduisent ensuite un travail au niveau local pour identifier des points de transit stratégiques. Les enquêteurs collectent les données auprès d’informateurs clés présents sur le point de suivi des flux: il peut s’agir du personnel des gares routières, des fonctionnaires de police ou de douane, de chauffeurs de bus ou camions, ou des migrants eux-mêmes. Un questionnaire de base mêlé à des observations directes permet de collecter des données désagrégées par sexe et nationalité. Au Niger, les point de suivi des flux ont été choisi après consultation avec les acteurs nationaux et locaux impliqués dans la gestion des migrations, en fonction des localisations et des caractéristiques propres aux flux transitant dans le désert du Sahara. La collecte de données se fait de manière quotidienne sur des plages horaires où les flux sont les plus importants.

    LIMITES: Les données utilisées dans le cadre de cette analyse incluant la carte, sont des estimations et ne représentent qu’une partie des flux existants sur les axes Agadez - Arlit – Assamaka; Agadez - Séguédine – Sebha; et le sud. La couverture spatiale et temporelle de ces enquêtes est partielle et, bien que la collecte se fasse de manière quotidienne et sur des périodes où les flux sont importants, elle reste partielle à l’échelle de la journée. Enfin, aucune information n’est collectée sur les flux existant en dehors des plages horaires couvertes. Les données sur les vulnérabilités sont basées sur des observations directes des enquêteurs et ne doivent être comprises qu’à titre indicatif.

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, World


    This report presents an analysis of 17,628 surveys conducted with mobile populations in the West and Central Africa region between January and June 2018. These surveys are part of IOM DTM's Flow Monitoring activities, which gather information on the numbers and characteristics of travellers observed in high mobility areas of origin, transit and destination. Surveys are conducted at Flow Monitoring Points on a sample of travellers on a daily basis (travellers may or may not be nationals). The purpose of these surveys is to collect more in-depth information on travellers, such as their nationalities, educational and vocational backgrounds, reasons for departure and intended destinations.

    The first section of this report presents a regional analysis by intended destinations indicated by the respondents, the second section present an analysis by nationality declared by the respondents.

    METHODOLOGY: A Flow Monitoring Point (FMP) collects information on the number, frequency and defining features of individuals transiting a particular location. Prior to the establishment of an FMP, it is essential to identify key migration-prone areas. These locations are identified based on assessments of main migration routes at national and local levels, conducted in partnership with national and local authorities. To date, more than 30 FMPs are active in seven countries of the West and Central Africa region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal). FMPs rely on two main tools: The Flow Monitoring Registry (FMR) and the Flow Monitoring Survey (FMS). The FMR includes direct observations at places of entry, transit or exit, as well as interviews with key informants (including transportation workers, housing workers, and migration officials) to assess movement trends, routes, and countries of origin and destination. The FMS entails more detailed individual surveys to profile people on the move, including education levels and skills/employment; drivers of migrations; and needs, risks and vulnerabilities. This document presents an analysis of surveys conducted using the FMS tool. A similar methodology is used in other regions (Horn of Africa and Europe) to allow for comparative analysis of flows and individuals’ characteristics.

    LIMITATION: The data presented in this document is representative of surveys conducted with individuals at FMPs in Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Niger and Chad during the timeframe indicated. The data should not be generalized and does not represent a full picture of inter and intra-regional migration, but rather a snapshot of migration flows at specific locations. For example, while IOM aims to establish Flow Monitoring Points at locations with high transit flows (based on information from key informants), flows are fluid and FMPs can only provide a partial picture. The monitoring of flows in assessed locations should not lead to assumptions about flows in areas without flow monitoring points. ANALYSIS: Respondents who participated in the survey did not have a uniform profile and exhibited a variety of characteristics. Nevertheless, by focusing on certain indicators, such as country of departure, country of intended destination, or nationality, it is possible to identify different profiles of travellers and to establish a typology of movements observed. Five categories of travel were identified, upon which the comparative analysis presented in the report was based. One category relates to internal travel, while the other four relate to cross-border travel.

    Internal Travel:
    1. Domestic Travel: The country of departure and intended final destination of respondents is the same as their country of origin.
    Cross-Border Travel:
    2. Migration from country of nationality: Respondents departed from their country of nationality with the intention of travelling to a different country.
    3. Migration from another country: Respondents departed from their country of habitual residence (not their country of nationality) with the intention of travelling to a different country that is neither their country of nationality or their country of habitual residence.
    4. Return to country of nationality: Respondents departed from a different country to return to their country of nationality.
    5. Other: Cross-border travel that does not correspond to any of the above categories.

    In addition to categorizing travellers by type of travel, this report also provides an analysis of populations on the move on the basis of their final intended destinations, looking more specifically at final destination countries in EUROPE, NORTH AFRICA and WEST & CENTRAL AFRICA. This report first presents an overview of travellers surveyed in the region, to provide a general idea of respondents’ nationalities and motivations for travel. It then presents a detailed analysis of the top nationalities surveyed and provides additional information on their socio-demographic characteristics.

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    Source: International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Message from our Regional Director

    Despite numerous humanitarian challenges in 2017 in Africa, there were also a number of heart-warming accomplishments. A case in point, was when a local response of Red Crescent teams—and other partners—curbed Somalia's cholera outbreak through the power of local volunteers and shared international expertise. In terms of support to our members, 36 National Societies were able to kick start initiatives that built their capacity through seed grants.

    It is such highlights that I am pleased to present in this annual report for 2017, a year during which the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) in Africa continued to pursue the direction and specific milestones defined in the “IFRC in Africa, Road Map 2017 – 2020.” The humanitarian context in 2017 remained challenging. A food crisis continued to worsen in Somalia, Ethiopia, South Sudan, north-east Nigeria and Central African Republic (CAR). The refugee crisis in Uganda was compounded by a new influx of thousands of people fleeing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In Madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague killed over 100 people. In the same year, Cyclone Enawo, the strongest storm to hit Madagascar in over a decade, left enormous humanitarian needs in its wake.

    Perhaps one of the most dreadful humanitarian disasters of the year was when deadly mudslides killed over 1,000 people in a very short time on the outskirts Freetown, Sierra Leone, leaving about 8,000 families of survivors in need of humanitarian assistance.
    Our gallant volunteers responded to all of these challenges with unerring courage and determination. Sadly, it was not without a price: several volunteers lost their lives in line of duty in 2017. Six Red Cross volunteers were killed in an attack on a health centre in southeast Central African Republic on 3 August.

    That was the third attack on Red Cross workers in Central African Republic that year. In January 2017, in Nigeria, six Red Cross aid workers were killed in an airstrike on the town of Rann, near the border of Nigeria and Cameroon.

    My experience as the IFRC Regional Director for Africa continues to be immeasurably rewarding. The commitment of the network of African Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, volunteers and partners in response to the needs of vulnerable communities has inspired me to be deeply committed to the Movement. It is humbling to see the greatest strength of African National Societies – the volunteers – at work. The 1.4 million volunteers in Africa who selflessly offer unparalleled presence at local level. They help us to respond fast, and to go the extra mile.

    I would like to take this opportunity to express my deepest gratitude to Red Cross Red Crescent staff and volunteers and IFRC colleagues who made 2017 a successful, if challenging, year. Their dedication and hard work has ensured we've reached millions across the region. This report provides useful insights and inspiration for taking humanitarian work in Africa to the next level.

    Dr Fatoumata Nafo-Traoré Regional Director, IFRC Africa

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    Source: COOPI - Cooperazione Internazionale
    Country: Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Paraguay, Peru, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, World


    COOPI’s worldwide operations increased once again in 2017. It means also that the number of humanitarian crises we have tried to respond to as effectively as ever has increased. We have decided not to limit ourselves to intervening when there is an emergency, only to then move on elsewhere; instead, we remain alongside the communities hit by those emergencies in the medium-to-long-term, so as to help them overcome their critical issues and launch a reconstruction process.

    Our ‘Help a Warrior’ campaign is a good example of this way of working. In regions where armed conflicts are raging, children cannot lead a normal life, go to school or play: they really do need to be ‘young warriors’ to tackle these challenges day after day. In such situations, we don’t limit ourselves to providing food and shelter; we look past that emergency and reconstruct a ‘normal’ environment where even ‘young warriors’ can go to school in safety and serenity.

    Over the last year, humanitarian crises have often been intertwined to the phenomenon of migration and therefore to the fears of many people, as well as media hype. We decided not to work in Italy where others undoubtedly have more experience, but rather to continue doing what we do best: trying to alleviate the conditions of economic and social hardship that drive millions of people to immigrate.

    In the Lake Chad basin, for example, COOPI increased its commitment enormously in 2017. This is a crucial area that has been hit by drought and the insecurity caused by Boko Haram attacks, and is crossed by migration routes that lead from the heart of the continent to Libya. COOPI works in all four of the countries hit by the crisis with specially tailored programmes that range from food security to the reconstruction of schools and re-integration of rejected migrants.

    In this annual report, we will attempt to account all these activities. However, above and beyond this statement, our friends know that they can always have up-to-date information about our work visiting or sending me a message: I will be happy to reply.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Mixed Migration Centre
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Togo

    This 4Mi snapshot is a continuation of the snapshot published in September 2018 on profiles and reasons for departure of refugees and migrants from West Africa. It is also based on data collected between 1 January and 31 July 2018.

    During this period, 2,184 refugees and migrants were interviewed by 4Mi in West Africa, in Mali (Mopti, Gao and Timbuktu), Niger (Niamey and Agadez) and Burkina Faso (Dori and Bobo Dioulasso).

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    Source: WaterAid
    Country: Bangladesh, Benin, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Sudan, Tajikistan, Togo, World, Zambia

    The health, education and safety of millions of children around the world is threatened because they don’t have a decent toilet at school or at home, according to WaterAid’s State of the World’s Toilets 2018 report.

    The Crisis in the Classroom, WaterAid’s fourth-annual analysis of the world’s toilets released ahead of World Toilet Day, highlights that one in five primary schools and one in eight secondary schools globally do not have any toilets. Guinea-Bissau on the coast of West Africa tops the table for worst in the world for school toilets, while Ethiopia remains the nation with the most people without household toilets.

    A shocking one in three of the world’s schools lack adequate toilets, compromising children’s human rights to sanitation and leaving them to either use dirty, unsafe pits, go in the open, or stay at home. This means children are dangerously exposed to illnesses that could kill them. Repeated bouts of diarrhoea increase their chances of being malnourished, and sanitation-related illnesses result in missed school days and the loss of potential.

    Of the 101 countries with data available on how many schools have decent toilets, Guinea-Bissau in West Africa comes last. There eight in ten schools lack adequate facilities. This is followed by Niger, where only 24% of schools have even basic sanitation and more than seven in ten people defecate in the open because they lack a household toilet.

    The sanitation crisis doesn’t end at school. In sub-Saharan Africa, an estimated 344 million children do not have a decent toilet at home meaning their communities are polluted with human waste. Ethiopia tops the table at an astonishing 93% of households without a decent toilet, leaving children vulnerable to diarrhoea and intestinal infections.

    Some countries, however, are making decent toilets in schools a priority. Over half of schools in Bangladesh now have a decent toilet and shared toilets in slum areas are providing a stepping stone to better health.

    Among the other findings:

    • Children living in communities without decent toilets are at higher risk of diarrhoea. Sadly, diarrhoea caused by dirty water and poor sanitation kills 289,000 children under five each year.

    • Diarrhoea and intestinal infections kill nearly 140,000 children aged between five and 14 each year – many of which could be prevented with clean water, decent sanitation and good hygiene.

    • Across South Asia, more than a third of girls miss school for between one and three days a month during their period.

    • As many as one in three schools in Madagascar don’t have any functioning toilets at all. It is the third worst country in the world for access to a decent toilet at home – just one person in ten has at least basic sanitation.

    • Papua New Guinea comes third in the list of countries where the proportion of people with decent toilets at home and school is decreasing. There 220 children die each year from water and sanitation-related diarrhoea, and polio – a waterborne disease - has recently returned to the island after being eradicated in 2000.

    • Nearly seven in ten schools in Zambia now have basic toilets, and three quarters of children are able to complete their primary education.

    Tim Wainwright, WaterAid’s Chief Executive, said:

    “Children in every country of the world need access to safe toilets at home and at school. Their health, education and safety depend on it. Every child should be able to go to the toilet safely and with dignity whether they are at school or at home. Bringing safe toilets to the one in three schools worldwide with no adequate toilets, should be a top priority – along with bringing decent household toilets to the 2.3 billion people still waiting.

    “Progress towards any of the UN Sustainable Development Goals will not be possible without clean water, decent toilets and good hygiene. If we are serious about all children and young people, wherever they are, whatever their gender, physical ability or community background, having their right to clean water and sanitation, we must take decisive and inclusive action now.”

    This World Toilet Day, WaterAid is calling for:

    • Governments to invest more money in sanitation for all and ensure an integrated approach and improved transparency in monitoring and reporting

    • Education and finance ministers in every country, as well as donors, to invest in sanitation services and establish credible plans for achieving universal access within an agreed timeframe

    • School sanitation to meet the specific needs of girls in order to ensure their privacy, safety and dignity.

    • School sanitation to be inclusive, enabling children with disabilities to use clean, safe, accessible toilets at school.

    For interviews or more information, please contact:

    Anna France-Williams, Senior Media Officer, or +44 (0)207 793 5048; or Carolynne Wheeler, News Manager, or +44 (0)207 793 4485.

    Or call our after-hours press line on +44 (0)7887 521 552 or email

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Italy, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Spain, Tunisia, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    IOM works with national and local authorities to gain a better understanding of population movements throughout West and Central Africa. Flow Monitoring Points (FMPs) allow IOM to quantify and qualify migration flows, trends, and routes, at entry, exit, and transit points (such as border crossing posts, bus stations, rest areas, police checkpoints and reception centres). Since July 2016, several flow monitoring points have been progressively set up in important locations in Mali, such as Gao, Timbuktu, Kidal, Menaka, Mopti, Kayes, Segou, Sikasso, and Bamako, to monitor the daily movements of migrants heading to West and North African countries.

    In October 2018, the average daily number of individuals observed at the Flow Monitoring Points decreased by 2 per cent compared to the previous month.

    Nationals from Mali, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal and Gambia accounted for 80 per cent of all the migrants recorded at the flow monitoring points.

    Algeria, Mauritania, Niger and Burkina Faso are major transit countries for migrants after their stopover in Mali.

    Economic migration, including but not limited to long-term migration of more than 6 months (82% of flows) and shortterm movement (14% of flows), is the main observed type of movement

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, France, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Italy, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Spain, Togo

    Key findings

    • A large majority of migrants are men (88%).

    • 7% of observed migrants at Flow Monitoring Points are minors.

    • 147,528 migrants (46,165 incoming and 101,363 outgoing) were observed at Flow Monitoring Points, representing an average of 194 migrants per day.

    • The majority of outgoing migrants (51%) indicated their intention to travel to Algeria,
      Mauritania or Libya, while 34 per cent intended to travel to Europe, particularly to Italy and Spain.

    • Algeria, Mauritania, Burkina Faso and Niger are major transit points after Mali.

    • Nationals from Guinea, Gambia, Senegal, and Côte d'Ivoire rank first among non-Malian migrants transiting through Mali (42% of flows).

    • The vast majority of identified migrants arrived in Mali in transit buses. However, migrants departing from Gao mainly traveled in trucks, while those identified at other flow monitoring points primarily traveled by bus.

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    Source: United Nations Population Fund, UN Children's Fund
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, World

    Child marriage in West and Central Africa is one of the biggest challenges in the region and has enormous adverse effects on education, health, including sexual and reproductive health, and on the overall development of adolescents and youth. This brochure provides recent data and analysis of child marriage in the region.

    This brochure has been developed following the successful High Level Meeting on Child Marriage in West and Central Africa held in Senegal in October 2017. This was the first-ever High Level Event on Child Marriage in the region. It is also been developed to support the African Union (AU) work on ending child marriage on the continent. It has been produced within the framework of the UNFPA-UNICEF Global Programme to Accelerate Action to End Child Marriage as a resource for stakeholders working on, or researching, the issue of child marriage in West and Central Africa.

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