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ReliefWeb - Updates on Sierra Leone

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone

    Niamey – The UN Migration Agency’s (IOM) assisted voluntary return efforts in Niger have already eclipsed figures from last year, largely fuelled by the distressing outflow of migrants across the Algeria-Niger border. The mission reports this week that more than 10,000 migrants have been assisted to date, compared to roughly 7,000 in all of 2017.

    “The IOM team is working tirelessly to facilitate voluntary returns and provide protection assistance to all West African migrants, whether rescued from the desert or requesting our assistance while in Niger,” said IOM Chief of Mission in Niger, Giuseppe Loprete.

    Close to 90 per cent of the more than 8,000 rescued migrants were discovered during 84 search operations near the border towns of Arlit and Assamaka.

    Despite the fact that more than half of the roughly 12,000 migrants who have arrived at IOM’s six transit centres in Niger so far this year lack any form of identification, IOM has managed to process over 5,000 requests for travel documents thanks to the efforts of consulates, embassies and Nigerien authorities.

    “We thank the Government of Niger and all West African countries for the provision of valid travel documents, which remains our main concern due to the lack of documentation among migrants,” said Loprete. “None of this would be possible without the continued support of the European Union.”

    IOM assists all migrants, Nigeriens or third-country nationals, who wish to return home. The main countries of origin for those who have received voluntary assistance this year were Mali, Guinea-Conakry, Cameroon, Niger, Senegal, Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Burkina Faso.

    The latest group of 391 migrants stranded at the border arrived on 13 July. Of this group, 315 were assisted and transported to the transit centre in Arlit two days later; 64 made their own way to that location and nine decided to head back to Algeria from Assamaka.

    Condé was among one of the recent groups to be repatriated from Algeria to Niger, after having spent two years abroad. “I will surely never travel without papers again. We may not have everything at home, but if you have enough strength and determination, you can make a life for yourself anywhere,” said the Guinea-Conakry national.

    Together with his wife, Condé is now waiting to be assisted with voluntary return at IOM’s transit centre in Agadez.

    The numbers of people seeking help has exploded in recent years. In 2015, 1,721 migrants were provided voluntary return to their countries of origin. In 2016, the figure almost tripled, to over 5,000. May 2018 saw IOM assisting an all-time peak of nearly 3,400 migrants with voluntary return.

    Accommodation at the transit centres is voluntary: people are free to leave when they choose. All migrants arriving at the centre are registered and profiled, and provided shelter, food, water, and medical and psychosocial assistance.

    IOM arranges airline and bus reservations for all migrants wishing to return to their countries of origin and has provided escorts from airports and bus stations.

    “Over the last three years, the EU and its member states have contributed to consolidating the approach and making these returns safe and dignified. There has been excellent cooperation. Our aim now is to reinforce it by including additional options to voluntary returns, such as community development, job creation and micro-finance support linked to our reintegration programme, both in countries of transit and origin,” Loprete said.

    The six transit centres in Niger are supported by the Migrant Resource and Response Mechanism (MRRM) funded by the European Union and co-financed by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the Department for International Development (DFID), the German Cooperation and the governments of the Netherlands, France and Switzerland.

    The EU-IOM Joint Initiative for Migrant Protection and Reintegration together with the MRRM programme are funded by the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa.

    For more information, please contact Giuseppe Loprete, IOM Niger at Tel: +227 9219 9503, Email:

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Sierra Leone

    In Numbers
    - 203.1 mt of food assistance distributed
    - US$ 0 cash based transfers made
    - US$ 7,914,883 six months (May-Oct 2018) net funding requirements, representing 64% of total

    Operational Updates

    • In preparation to support the government’s policy to re-introduce school meals in all public assisted primary schools, WFP has assessed 720 schools in 50 chiefdoms in Bonthe, Kailahun, Kono, Pujehun, Tonkolili and Kambia districts to determine their readiness for the implementation of the school meals programme. • In collaboration with the district health management team, WFP conducted a joint monitoring in Bombali district of the nutrition support to TB clients programme. The monitoring revealed the high turnover of government peripheral health unit staff, thus affecting continuity of project implementation. • A delegation from ECOWAS visited the 2017 mudslide and flood victims in Freetown to get firsthand account of their ordeal and the support they received from WFP and other humanitarian actors. They also visited some government agencies including the Office of National Security which coordinated the emergency response. • WFP completed the second round of food assistance for assets (FFA) distribution to vulnerable smallholder farmers in Pujehun district engaged in rehabilitation of inland valley swamps. FFA focuses on assets and their impact on people and communities rather than on conditionality (i.e. the labour) placed on assisted people, so that food assistance is not provided as a free hand-out.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone


    More than two and a half years after its signing, the 2015 Peace Accord and Reconciliation in Mali still lacks necessary support and its implementation has been minimal.

    The volatile security environment in northern and central Mali as well as in the border areas continues to trigger forced displacements inside Mali and into neighboring countries. This situation impacting on the protection environment and limiting humanitarian access as well as access to basic services such as health, documentation, shelter, water, education and food.


    • 40 Protection Incidents related to fundamental human rights’ violations were collected and documented.

    • 41 sensitizations reached 764 persons on the human rights violations and risks associated with mixed migration.

    • 168 Birth Certificates were distributed to Mauritanian refugees in Kayes.


    • Support voluntary repatriation of refugees in protracted situations;

    • Continue the process of naturalisation for Mauritanian refugees who have indicated their desire for local integration;

    • Support and advocate for the functioning of the Appeals Board as well as expedite the granting of refugee status to eligible applicants;

    • Strengthen protection to PoCs through socio-economic activities and access to basic rights;

    • Strengthen advocacy for the domestication of the Kampala Convention for IDPs;

    • Approach other UN Agencies to encourage them to intervene through projects to strengthen basic social structures (“delivering as one” context).

    Update on Achievements

    Operational Context

    ■ The humanitarian and security situations in Mali are complex and are deteriorating. Insecurity and various violations of human rights and international humanitarian law expanded from the northern to the central regions, increasing the vulnerability of populations. The protracted nature of the crisis is worrying amidst less funding of protection and humanitarian assistance.

    ■ Despite the deployment of armed forces in Mali, the security situation remains worrying. In addition to security incidents (IEDs, robberies, kidnappings, etc.), inter-communal conflicts in Koro area are only getting worse from day to day, causing forced displacements of people in this area.

    ■ On 2 June, in Bamako, 16 persons were wounded during an unauthorised demonstration organised by opposition parties. This activity was dispersed by security forces.

    ■ On 6 June, unidentified armed individuals intercepted a convoy of 9 WFP-registered civilian trucks bound for Tenenkou Circle carrying WFP food, at the village of Dia, Diaka Commune.

    ■ On 9 June, a FAMa convoy on a mission in Kadial locality in Mopti Region, in charge of recovering the nine (09) WFP-registered civilian trucks hit an Improvised Explosive Device (IED), followed by a heavy gun fire which left two dead. A vehicle with heavy weapon was carried away by the unidentified attackers and another vehicle was damaged on the FAMa side.

    ■ High Commissioner for Refugees, Mr. Filippo Grandi, and his delegation among whom were the Director of Africa Bureau, The Regional Representative for West Africa, and a media team visited Mali on 22 and 23 June 2018. On 22 June, the delegation met and discussed with the President and the Prime Minister, respectively, and thanked them for the Government’s commitment to local integration of the refugees in protracted situation, as well as for the government’s open door policy and hospitality towards refugees from Burkina Faso and Niger. It is worth noting that the Government of Mali granted naturalisation to four Mauritanian refugees and hopes to continue with the process. The HC took advantage of this visit to raise the Malian refugees’ voluntary return from asylum countries in safety and dignity issue. He encouraged to bring the return issue to the heart of the peace process, to strengthen basic social services and social cohesion in the areas of return, and to strengthen the national coordination mechanism on migration issues with the participation of other various actors including IOM, UNICEF and the Malian civil society. He reiterated UNHCR's commitment to assisting and protecting returnees and other populations in areas of return. On 23rd June, the High Commissioner and his delegation travelled to Gao in the north of Mali to meet refugees from Niger or Burkina Faso who are fleeing their countries because of the deteriorating security situation. Furthermore, they have met and discussed with returning Malian refugees from asylum countries. The High Commissioner urged greater support for the newly arrived refugees from Burkina Faso and Niger. In his intervention with the media, he called upon Donors to respond to the need of these refugees.

    ■ On 20 June, UNHCR in Mali celebrated the commemoration of the World Refugee Day through a series of activities carried out in the localities where persons of concern and UNHCR are located, including Bamako, Mopti and Timbuktu. In Bamako, the office of the Representation celebrated the day on June 20th, 2018, at the Maison des Ainés. This year, the ceremony was marked by a wide dissemination of the High Commissioner’s statement by UNHCR’s Representative in Mali, Ms. Angele Djohossou, on the Malian national television. Other artistic activities as well as theatrical performances led by refugees were performed. They have also exhibited their items in booths as part of UNHCR’s funded income-generating activities (IGAs). In line with UNHCR’s “With Refugees” global campaign, the opening ceremony was presided by Mr. Adama Berete, Mayor of Bamako’s Commune IV, Mr. Amadou Diallo, the Acting Secretary General of the Ministry of Solidarity and Humanitarian Action, Ms. Angele Djohossou, UNHCR’s Representative in Mali, Ms. Silvia Caruso, the Acting Representative of the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General, Humanitarian Coordinator, Resident Coordinator of the United Nations System in Mali, and Mr. Patrice Makilutidi Mvuama, President of the Refugee Union in Mali (URM). The ceremony was attended by refugees and asylum-seekers of different nationalities, UNHCR's partners in Mali, members of the diplomatic corps and representatives of UN agencies, Donors, journalists and governmental and non-governmental organizations.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    World Refugee Day Declared a Working Holiday by the Government of Liberia

    500 Birth certificates shared with refugee parents from January-June 2018

    9,529 Total number of refugees remaining in Liberia


    ■ IMF is pessimistic about Liberia’s economy and emphasizes transparency over debts

    The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has emphasized that future Liberia debt obligations should be undertaken transparently, limiting new debt to concessional terms, with effective implementation of infrastructure projects.

    The June 2018 International Money Fund’s Article IV Consultation says “Liberia remains fragile with poor living conditions for the majority of the population”.

    In its June 2018 report, the IMF seems deeply concerned that prospects for economic growth are characterized by “[…] an increase in commodity prices and output, while downside risks include difficulties in mobilizing resources to fill the financing gap and in pursuing structural and institutional reforms”. IMF also states that “All the elements of the government’s medium-term development agenda have not been fully outlined.”

    IMF noted that Liberia’s economy appears poised for recovery, but that significant fragilities remain. Assuming sound policies, Directors agreed that the medium term outlook is favorable, albeit with risks. Directors welcomed the authorities’ pro poor agenda and noted that macroeconomic stability is essential for advancing this agenda.

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    Source: Médecins Sans Frontières
    Country: Sierra Leone

    • Over three years after Sierra Leone was declared Ebola-free, people are still reluctant to visit health centres.

    • In a country where maternal mortality is among the highest in the world and children die from malaria and malnutrition, seeking care still means traveling far and paying for expensive drugs and services without any certainty of being cured.

    • To gain people’s trust in the health system, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is training local staff, providing medical stocks and reaching out to far-flung communities.

    At 10am, the health post of Konta, in Gorama Mende chiefdom, in Sierra Leone’s Kenema district, is slowly filling up with patients. A row of pregnant women wait in the maternity area for a lady in pink, Margaret Toka, the post’s maternal and child health nurse.

    As she prepares her room for the day’s consultations, the women outside catch their breath after a long trip to the health post. Most of them are from Bondayelahuu, a village on the other side of Sewa river.

    To get to Konta, they have walked for over an hour, crossed the river using a canoe, and walked another half an hour from the crossing point to the post.

    “It’s far but it’s for my baby so I have to do it,” says Bintu Fofannah, the youngest of the group. She says she’s around 18 or 19 years old and this is her second pregnancy.

    She delivered last year but her first baby did not survive. It’s her first time to be checked at the health post and she’s nervous.

    Using rapid diagnostic kits, Margaret will check Bintu’s haemoglobin and blood sugar levels, test her for signs of sexually transmitted infections and conduct the mandatory malaria test.

    Like the rest of women who went there for their antenatal care visits, Bintu will be given supplements or antibiotics if needed, and a few sets of bed nets to prevent her and her family from contracting malaria.

    She will be pleasantly surprised to know she’s getting all this for free. She only has enough money to pay for the canoe ride back home.

    Healthcare after Ebola

    Bearing and delivering a child still poses huge risks for women in Sierra Leone. The country’s maternal mortality rate is among the highest in the world.

    Children under five regularly contract malaria, the top cause of deaths among this age group, and many suffer from severe or acute malnutrition.

    The country is also regularly battered by natural and man-made disasters, as well as disease outbreaks, which make it difficult for the health system to recover after each blow it suffers.

    When Ebola hit the country in 2014-2015, Sierra Leone’s already limited health workforce further decreased by seven per cent. In Kenema district alone, more than 200 health workers died of the disease.

    In rural areas, most peripheral health units (PHUs) became barely functional. They are dilapidated, with no water or electricity and, more often than not, they have no staff or medical stocks.

    For some people, traveling to the nearest PHU will take an hour or so by motorbike. They will have to pay a hefty amount for the ride both ways only to arrive at a health post that has neither the facilities nor the health workers to treat them.

    It is then more practical for them to stay in the villages and turn to traditional healers, who would accept gifts such as rice or crops in return for their services. Local communities have relied on them for generations.

    Early detection and referral of complicated cases to health facilities, though, are very difficult when deliveries and treatments are carried out at home, which often results in patients dying.

    Since 2017, MSF has been working with the Ministry of Health to stop women and children from dying of preventable causes. For MSF, this is also a way to build people’s trust in the health system.

    Konta health post is one of 10 PHUs that MSF is rehabilitating in the chiefdoms of Gorama Mende and Wandor, in northern Kenema district, by filling gaps in the provision of essential drugs and commodities, including test kits for women and therapeutic food for children.

    MSF has also improved the facilities of Baama community health centre, which receives complicated cases from the PHUs.

    Training the medics

    An outreach team of MSF nurses and midwives take turns working alongside Ministry of Health staff like Margaret to improve practical skills in diagnosis and treatment.

    The staff also learn how to evaluate a patient’s case against the referral criteria, so they build the confidence and medical judgment needed to make urgent referrals to either Baama or the district’s government hospital.

    In Baama, an ambulance and a fleet of motorbikes are ready to be deployed each time a pregnant woman or a child under five is in need of a higher level of care. An MSF team at the district hospital in Kenema will follow up referred patients, all of whom will be treated for free.

    “We are working towards making the Ministry of Health staff autonomous,” says Francis Mbuthi, the MSF project’s medical focal point. “To reduce mortality, they should be able to handle complicated cases, detect and refer the cases, and explain to the patients what exactly is happening to their health. If the staff don’t explain it to them, they will not seek healthcare.”

    A team of health promoters spread messages on malaria prevention, good hygiene practices, family planning and teenage pregnancies across the villages served by the PHU.

    Besides community leaders, health promoters also engage traditional healers and birth attendants in conversations with the communities, acknowledging their role as first responders who can help speed up the referral of patients.

    Near Kenema town, MSF is also building a new emergency paediatrics and obstetrics hospital that will focus on reducing maternal and child mortality while helping to develop the country’s health workforce.

    Paediatric care services will be provided at the MSF hospital from the end of this year through an emergency room, an intensive care unit, an inpatient therapeutic feeding centre (ITFC) and a general paediatric ward and isolation area. The hospital will also have a modern laboratory and a blood bank. A further expansion plan for the structure includes a radiology department as well as training facilities.

    Training human resources is a crucial step in getting Sierra Leone’s health system up to speed. A higher number of skilled health workers will improve the services provided in primary healthcare structures and enable an effective response to disasters and outbreaks.

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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Italy, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Spain, World

    L’Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM) au Niger a aidé à ce jour plus de 10.000 migrants à rentrer chez eux, contre environ 7.000 pour toute l’année 2017.

    Le nombre de migrants aidés dans le cadre des retours volontaires a déjà éclipsé les chiffres de l’année dernière.

    « Ces opérations ont été alimentés en grande partie par le flux important de migrants secourus le long de la frontière entre l’Algérie et le Niger », a déclaré lors d’un point de presse ce vendredi à Genève, Joel Millman, porte-parole de l’Agence des Nations Unies pour les migrations (OIM). Selon M. Millman, ces migrants qui ont été aidés à rentrer chez eux, sont généralement originaires du Mali, de la Guinée, du Cameroun, du Niger, du Sénégal, de la Côte d’Ivoire, du Libéria, du Nigéria, de la Sierra Leone et du Burkina Faso.

    « L’équipe de l’OIM travaille sans relâche pour faciliter les retours volontaires et fournir une aide à tous les migrants ouest-africains. Ces dernier sont secourus dans le désert ou lorsqu’ils demandent une assistance quand ils sont au Niger », a déclaré Giuseppe Loprete, Représentant de l’OIM au Niger. Selon l’agence onusienne, près de 90% des plus de 8.000 migrants sauvés ont été secourus au cours de 84 opérations de recherche près des villes frontalières d’Arlit et d’Assamaka.

    Malgré le fait que plus de la moitié des quelque 12.000 migrants qui sont arrivés cette année dans les six centres de transit de l’OIM au Niger manquent de toute forme d’identification, l’agence onusienne a réussi à traiter plus de 5.000 demandes de documents de voyage grâce aux efforts des consulats, des ambassades basés à Niamey et des autorités nigériennes.

    Des migrants ouest-africains extirpés de Libye

    Le nombre de migrants cherchant de l’aide a explosé ces dernières années. En 2015, 1.721 migrants avaient été aidés alors que ce chiffre a presque triplé en 2016, avec plus de 5.000 migrants ayant reçu une aide au retour volontaire. En mai 2018, l’OIM indique avoir constaté un pic avec près de 3.400 migrants assistés dans le cadre de ce programme de retour volontaire.

    Des opérations de rapatriement ont été également menées au cours des 10 derniers jours en Libye où l’OIM a affrété deux vols charters. Le 17 juillet, l’agence a ainsi aidé 136 migrants à rentrer chez eux dont 127 Maliens et des ressortissants d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Le 24 juillet dernier, ce sont 166 migrants, majoritairement des Maliens, qui ont aussi quitté la Libye. Au total, l’OIM a aidé 16.600 migrants à rentrer chez eux depuis le 28 novembre 2017 et plus de 29.700 migrants ont quitté la Libye avec l’aide de l’Organisation depuis le 1er janvier 2017.

    Plus de 55.000 migrants ont atteint l’Europe par la Méditerranée, mais plus de 1.500 décès enregistrés

    Par ailleurs, l’OIM note que plus de 55.000 migrants et réfugiés sont arrivés en Europe par la mer à la date du 25 juillet 2018. Ils étaient 111.753 à la même période l’an dernier, et 250.000 à la même date en 2016. A ce jour, un peu plus de 36% de tous les migrants irréguliers sont arrivées par l’itinéraire de la Méditerranée occidentale, où le volume de migration « irrégulière » a presque triplé par rapport à la même période l’an dernier. Le nombre d’arrivées en Espagne (20.992 arrivées) dépasse celui des arrivées en Italie (18.130).

    A ce jour, 12.162 migrants ont été rapatriés vers les côtes libyennes après leur tentative d’atteindre l’Europe.

    Mais ces traversées restent toujours périlleuses, transformant la Méditerranée centrale en un cimetière marin pour les migrants surtout d'origine subsaharienne. A cet égard, le Projet de l’OIM sur les migrants disparus fait état de 1.504 décès de migrants ayant tenté de traverser la mer en 2018. Plus de la moitié de ces décès ont eu lieu depuis le 1er juin

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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World


    This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 54 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:

    • Humanitarian crisis in Mali
    • Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Cholera outbreak in Niger
    • Measles outbreak in Mauritius
    • cVDPV in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.
    A table is provided at the end of the bulletin with information on all new and ongoing public health events currently being monitored in the region, as well as events that have recently been closed.

    Major issues and challenges include:

    • The humanitarian crisis in Mali is under reported, but is having a significant impact on the population with more than 4 million people affected including over 60 000 internally displaced and a further 140 000 as refugees in neighbouring countries. Nearly 2 million people are in need of health assistance and there is an increase in the number affected by epidemic-prone diseases outbreaks. A higher degree of support is needed from the international public health community to enable the local population to have access to basic social and healthcare services.

    • The current outbreak of measles in Mauritius demonstrates the importance of maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage against this leading public health threat. Prior to this current outbreak the last detected case of measles in Mauritius was in 2009 and the country consistently had one of the highest vaccination rates in the WHO African region. However, in the last two years the vaccination coverage has fallen, the result of which is the current outbreak. Supplementary immunisation activities are urgently being concluded to rapidly halt the spread of this outbreak.

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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World


    • This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 54 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:

    • The declaration of the end of the Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    • Focus on the outbreaks in Nakivale refugee camp in Uganda

    • Monkeypox outbreak in Central African Republic

    • Cholera outbreak in Nigeria

    • Measles outbreak in Ethiopia

    For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.

    • A table is provided at the end of the bulletin with information on all new and ongoing public health events currently being monitored in the region, as well as events that have recently been closed.

    Major issues and challenges include:

    • This week marked the end of the latest Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo where the speed of the response ensuring the rapid containment of the outbreak has been widely commended. However, there are many other outbreaks ongoing in the country, including cholera and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). Dr Tedros, WHO Director-General, urged the Government and the international community to build on the positive momentum generated by the quick containment of the Ebola outbreak to address these.

    • The need for the development of long term strategies to prevent future outbreaks is demonstrated in both the cholera outbreak in Nigeria and the outbreak of Monkeypox in the Central African Republic (CAR). CAR has been reporting Monkeypox outbreaks annually since 2013 and Nigeria major cholera outbreaks since 1991. Without significant strengthening of multi-sector preparedness measures these outbreaks will continue to adversely impact the population.

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    Source: Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, World

    Analyse régionale de la situation de l’insécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle aiguë – Situation courante (mars-mai 2018) et projetée (Juin-Août 2018)


    La consommation alimentaire s’est globalement détériorée dans la bande sahélienne (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritanie, Niger, Sénégal et Tchad) où il a été mis en relief un déficit quantitatif et qualitatif du niveau de consommation alimentaire, particulièrement chez les ménages pauvres et très pauvres. Toutefois, la consommation alimentaire est globalement satisfaisante dans les pays du Golfe de Guinée et s’est légèrement améliorée dans les trois Etats du Nord-Est du Nigeria (Adamawa, Borno et Yobe) grâce aux interventions humanitaires.

    L’évolution des moyens d’existence : sont en érosion dans les zones en crise alimentaire au Burkina Fao, Mali, Mauritanie, Niger, Nigeria, Sénégal et Tchad. Dans ces zones les populations pauvres et très pauvres font recours aux stratégies relatives aux moyens d’existence de type crise ou urgence pour satisfaire leurs besoins alimentaires. Pour la période de soudure, les perspectives indiquent une détérioration plus accentuée des conditions alimentaires avec l’épuisement des stratégies relatives aux moyens d’existence dans certaines zones sahéliennes des pays précités en raison de l’insécurité civile persistante dans le bassin du Lac Tchad, au Nord Mali et dans les zones frontalières du Liptako Gourma (Burkina Faso-Mali-Niger), mais, aussi en raison de la situation pastorale et les entraves de libre circulation des cheptels.

    La situation nutritionnelle demeure alarmante, malgré une légère baisse des prévalences de la malnutrition aigüe globale dans la région comme l’indiquent les résultats des enquêtes SMART (période post-récolte) de certains pays comme le Sénégal et les 3 Etats du Nord-Est du Nigéria (Adamawa, Borno et Yobé). Cependant, certaines zones continuent d’enregistrer des taux de la malnutrition aigüe globale au-dessus du seuil d’urgence (MAG supérieur à 15%). Par rapport à la même période de l’année passée, la situation de la malnutrition aigüe sévère reste préoccupante au regard de l’augmentation du nombre d’admissions pour la prise en charge. La situation pourrait se dégrader en période de soudure jugée plus précoce en 2018, notamment dans les zones pastorales. D’autres facteurs, tels que l’accès limité à l’eau potable, à l’assainissement et les maladies infantiles comme la diarrhée, les infections respiratoires aiguës et le paludisme, pourraient également justifier cette situation.

    La situation de mortalité : des taux de mortalité au-delà du seuil d’urgence 2 décés pour 10000 enfants par jour ont été observés dans les 3 Etats du Nord-Est Nigéria plus précisément dans plusieurs zones au Nord de Borno et dans le centre-nord de Yobé. La surveillance doit continuer et des activités de réduction de taux de mortalité doivent être mise en place à très court terme. Ailleurs, la situation demeure globalement stable

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    Source: Center for Global Development
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, World

    On July 23, an outbreak report in _The Lancet Infectious Diseases_ documented the case of a female Ebola survivor who transmitted the virus to family members more than year later. This is the first known instance of a female survivor with persistent capacity to transmit the virus long after infection (it was already known that the virus can persist in semen for up to two years and be sexually transmitted). 

    But perhaps the most notable aspect of this case is that the woman was pregnant—at the time of suspected primary infection and again just before the recurrence of disease when she passed the virus onto family members.

    This raises new questions about how pregnancy may impact the presentation of Ebola virus disease (EVD), not just for women in the near term but across multiple pregnancies, and potentially as the source of new outbreaks.

    This case also underscores the need to be more attentive to and inclusive of the interests of pregnant women in our approaches to surveillance and preparedness, research of new biomedical interventions, and the public health response to outbreaks. This includes:

    • Capturing indicators relevant to pregnancy status and maternal, obstetric, neonatal, and child outcomes in infectious disease surveillance
    • Developing interventions that are safe and effective for use in pregnancy—with appropriate studies to evaluate interventions in pregnant women
    • Ensuring pregnant women are not inappropriately denied access to beneficial interventions like vaccines and drugs during epidemic responses

    Pregnancy and Ebola: What We Know and What We Need to Know

    As dire as Ebola infection is among the general population, it can be especially grim for pregnant women. Although there is limited data on EVD in pregnancy, case fatality rates among pregnant women in previous epidemics have been as high as 89-91 percent. Moreover, Ebola infection in pregnancy is associated with 100 percent miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death. To make matters worse, given the fear associated with Ebola transmission via bodily fluids, pregnant women struggle during epidemics to find care providers who will attend their births or assist them with complications of miscarriage—further compounding maternal mortality. Articles in The Lancet and Scientific American have highlighted the many ways that Ebola can disproportionately impact pregnant women.

    This new case in Liberia sets off alarm bells for how pregnancy and the immune system changes it induces can further jeopardize the health of pregnant women and their families well beyond the period of initial infection. The researchers hypothesize that re-emergence of clinical EVD was due to unique pregnancy-associated changes in the immune system that can exacerbate disease in the post-partum period—effectively causing latent infections to re-manifest as more severe and transmissible disease.

    While this is just one case, it underscores the need to collect better data to understand the pathophysiology of EVD in pregnancy, with potentially serious implications for how to protect female Ebola survivors and their contacts across future pregnancies and prevent future outbreaks. As countries and partners continue to invest in strengthening infectious disease surveillance systems, it is critical that relevant indicators of maternal, obstetric, and newborn outcomes are captured. Further, these surveillance systems need to be integrated and effectively communicate with routine health information systems that track various pregnancy-related outcomes to detect new signals and ultimately better inform scientific and public health responses to emerging pathogenic threats like Ebola.

    Ebola Drugs and Vaccines in Pregnancy: Missed Opportunities and Compounded Inequities

    It may be surprising to some that despite the serious risk of exposure among pregnant women and the dire consequences of Ebola infection, pregnant women were categorically excluded from all drug and vaccine trials that took place during the 2013-2016 epidemic in Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Even after initial findings of benefit from the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine ring trial led to expanded eligibility for children, pregnant women were still denied opportunities to participate. An account of how events unfolded surrounding these trials, including the unheeded recommendations from expert panels and ethics committees to include pregnant women, is provided in the appropriately titled article, “Protected to death: systematic exclusion of pregnant women from Ebola virus disease trials.”

    This exclusion represents a deep injustice on two accounts:

    • First, individual pregnant women facing the imminent risk of EVD were unfairly denied opportunities to receive experimental interventions that could have saved their lives.
    • Second, the global health and research community missed a critical opportunity to generate evidence on the safety and efficacy of Ebola vaccines and treatments in pregnancy to inform their use in future epidemics.

    Studies with pregnant women are needed because pregnancy alters the immune system, metabolism, cardiac output, and a variety of physiological mechanisms, so we cannot assume that drugs and vaccines given in pregnancy will work the same or require the same dosing as in non-pregnant adults. Moreover, the lack of rigorous studies in pregnant women can lead to limited and delayed adoption of safe and effective interventions by policymakers, providers, and women themselves. This has been a recurring story for various interventions in pregnancy, including delayed uptake of vaccines and non-ideal coverage of maternal immunizations due to low vaccine confidence in pregnancy.

    Now there may be even greater support for developing interventions like vaccines that pregnant women can safely use. If it turns out to be true that pregnancy can trigger new outbreaks by re-manifesting disease among post-partum female survivors, vaccines could not only protect pregnant women and their unborn children from initial Ebola exposures, but might avert future outbreaks altogether.

    Toward a Better Response for Ebola and Other Epidemic Threats in Pregnancy

    These new findings further highlight the ways in which infectious disease outbreaks can severely—and at times uniquely—affect the health interests of pregnant women and their offspring. It is clear that more work is needed to proactively consider the interests of pregnant women and their offspring in efforts to combat epidemic threats.

    Because research with pregnant women and the use of interventions with limited evidence in pregnancy can be ethically, scientifically, and legally complex, guidance is sorely needed on the conditions under which it is ethically acceptable, if not morally required, to offer investigational drugs and vaccines to pregnant women that might protect them and their offspring from the ravages of emerging infectious diseases.

    For the last two years, I’ve been working on the Pregnancy Research Ethics for Vaccines, Epidemics, and New Technologies (PREVENT) Project—a project funded by the Wellcome Trust—to develop consensus-driven, policy-relevant guidance to tackle these challenges in the case of epidemic vaccines. The guidance, coauthored by 17 experts in bioethics, maternal immunization, maternal-fetal medicine, philosophy, public health, and vaccine research and policy, will be released in September 2018. It puts forth 22 concrete recommendations to provide a roadmap for the ethically responsible, socially just, and respectful inclusion of the interests of pregnant women in the development and deployment of vaccines against emerging pathogens.

    As the pace of research and development accelerates and investments are being made to develop vaccines and therapies for a range of dangerous pathogens—many of which have severe presentations in pregnancy—there is an opportunity, now, to forge a path for more inclusive preparedness, R&D, and response that will ensure pregnant women and their offspring fairly benefit from investments and scientific advancements in the fight against emerging infectious diseases.

    Carleigh Krubiner is a Global Health Policy Fellow at CGD and serves as the PREVENT Project Director and a Co-Principle Investigator. The PREVENT Project is supported by a multi-year grant from the Wellcome Trust (203160/Z/16/Z). It is led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics and Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University, and the UNC Center for Bioethics. For more information, contact Carleigh Krubiner, visit, and follow the project on Twitter @pregnancyethics.

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    L’OIM travaille avec les autorités nationales, locales et des partenaires locaux, afin de mieux comprendre et connaître les mouvements migratoires à travers l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. Le suivi des flux de population (FMP) est une activité qui permet de quantifier et de qualifier les flux, les profils des migrants, les tendances et les routes migratoires sur un point d’entrée, de transit ou de sortie donné. En Guinée, 5 points de suivi ont été installés depuis avril 2017 dans les localités frontalières avec Mali et le Sénégal dont 3 sont actifs à ce jour (Boundoufourdou, Nafadji, Kouemalé). Les rapports donnent un aperçu global sur le flux et le profil des individus observés au mois d’avril 2018 à ces points de suivi des mouvements de population.

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    L’OIM travaille avec les autorités nationales, locales et des partenaires locaux, afin de mieux comprendre et connaître les mouvements migratoires à travers l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. Le suivi des flux de population (FMP) est une activité qui permet de quantifier et de qualifier les flux, les profils des migrants, les tendances et les routes migratoires sur un point d’entrée, de transit ou de sortie donné. En Guinée, 5 points de suivi ont été installés depuis avril 2017 dans les localités frontalières avec Mali et le Sénégal dont 3 sont actifs à ce jour (Boundoufourdou, Nafadji, Kouemalé). Les rapports donnent un aperçu global sur le flux et le profil des individus observés au mois de mai 2018 à ces points de suivi des mouvements de population.

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo

    L’Organisation Internationale pour les Migrations – OIM travaille avec les autorités nationales et locales ainsi que des partenaires locaux pour identifier et comprendre les mouvements migratoires en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. Les points de suivi de flux (ou en anglais Flow Monitoring Point – FMP) est une activité qui permet de quantifier et de qualifier les flux, les profils des migrants, les tendances et les routes migratoires sur un point d’entrée, de transit ou de sortie donné. Depuis février 2016, l’OIM Niger effectue un suivi de flux migratoires sur deux points dans la région d’Agadez au Niger, à Arlit et à Séguédine.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    West Africa can be divided into three agro-ecological zones or three different trade basins (West Basin, Central Basin and East Basin). Both important for understanding market behavior and dynamics.

    The three major agro-ecological zones are the Sahelian, the Sudanese and the Coastal zones where production and consumption can be easily classified. (1) In the Sahelian zone, millet is the principal cereal cultivated and consumed particularly in rural areas and increasingly, when accessible, in urban areas. Exceptions include Cape Verde where maize and rice are most important, Mauritania where sorghum and maize are staples, and Senegal with rice. The principal substitutes in the Sahel are sorghum, rice, and cassava flour (Gari), the latter two in times of shortage. (2) In the Sudanese zone (southern Chad, central Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo, Cote d'Ivoire, southern Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Serra Leone, Liberia) maize and sorghum constitute the principal cereals consumed by the majority of the population. They are followed by rice and tubers, particularly cassava and yam. (3) In the Coastal zone, with two rainy seasons, yam and maize constitute the most important food products. They are supplemented by cowpea, which is a significant source of protein.

    The three trade basins are known as the West, Central, and East basins. In addition to the north to south movement of particular commodities, certain cereals flow horizontally. (1) The West basin refers to Mauritania, Senegal, western Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and The Gambia where rice is most heavily traded. (2) The Central basin consists of Cote d'Ivoire, central and eastern Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Togo where maize is commonly traded. (3) The East basin refers to Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Benin where millet is traded most frequently. These three trade basins are shown on the map above.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes.

    L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.

    Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2) Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Serra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3) Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.

    Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé. (2) Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

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    Source: UN Country Team in Sierra Leone
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Women’s political participation calls for a much more robust approach that will not only make women’s voices heard but also strategically position women in political leadership and public decision-making roles.

    Over sixty women assembled in the City Council Hall of Kamakuwie in Karena Bombali District in the northern province of Sierra Leone on 7th October 2017, six months prior to the 2018 general elections in Sierra Leone. It was the first time UN Women succeeded in establishing a common platform for women-led civil society organizations in order to advance women’s political participation. This was particularly necessary and historical in the light of women’s shrinking presence in political parties. There was a need to strengthen civil society women’s advocacy and lobby in positioning women’s voice and agency. The need for a safe space for women in the electoral cycle and particularly during the general elections was more pronounced. Women’s organizations and aspiring female candidates needed to strategize on how to create an enabling environment for women as election candidates as well as women voters. The UN Women Country Office in Sierra Leone established a Common Platform that engaged a number of women-led CSOs (including the 50/50 Group, the Mano River Women Peace Network (MAWOPNET), Campaign for Good Governance, Women’s Forum and many others. This Common Platform became vital for resource mobilization, in addition to energizing the women’s movement. UN Women mobilized financial resources, which contributed towards strengthening women’s voice and agency in peace building. UN Women developed the project, Women, Peace and Security, with thanks to funding from the Peace Building Fund (PBF). On this platform, a number of post-election interventions have continued to be built.

    It was here that the Karina Declaration was generated. The Karina Declaration states that the Sierra Leone’s Women’s Movement will work together in sisterhood with a shared vision that goes beyond political party lines, to achieve equitable women’s political representation in public decision-making processes. The declaration also agreed that the Sierra Leone Women’s Movement must continue to strengthen and link with grass-roots women’s movements in solidifying GEWE and in increasing the critical mass of empowered women, girls, men and boys.

    From 30 May– 2 June 2018, the campaign for good governance with support from UN Women and through the PBF, engaged women in Kenema and Bo, to share their experiences and reflections on elections conflicts mediations and non-violence that could help make a change for the 2023 elections. About 68 women were converged, testimonies were heard and presentations made by various groups.

    Ammie Lebbie is a school teacher and female activist invited by the 50/50 Group to talk to 34 women from different political parties and groups. She pointed out that for women to make an impact in elections they must stand together as one with confidence and determination, demonstrating solidarity, resilience, and fortitude. She re-emphasized the importance of self-confidence and efforts to relinquish fear as eagles in the sky and elephant in the forest.Many issues affect women from supporting one another such as jealousy among women, lack of self-confidence, lack of education and skills, dependence on their husbands and low self-esteem. She added that women can make it if they change their mind set,as when a woman survives many other survives, but when a man survives very few survives. The impetus to actualize women’s position in leadership and power is harnessed with the great expectation of more women in politics taking decision-making roles. Ammie Lebby served as an inspiration to the seated women who listened to her.

    Josephine H Gandi giving her contribution to the violence perpetuated against women before, during and after Sierra Leones March 2018 elections said a woman was beaten by nine men because of her political association. “There was no political will and instructions from above is a slogan which is well known to create pandemonium and marginalize human rights. A renown politician gave orders to beat up Easter Pendema, a local business woman, even when she was admitted in hospital from the injuries she encountered, there was an unsuccessful attempt on her life. All efforts to enforce the law failed and Sheku Silla who instructed the attack was very influential so even though the evidences were there the case was just ignored, the police could not do anything. She also went on to say that a young girl of 15 was gang raped in Pendembu in the East of Sierra Leone and that the autopsy results showed that she died of liver damage. No action was taken to investigate and bring the rapist to justice.” Josephine called on all women’s group and organizations to look in to the women’s manifesto and increase its relevance for more inclusion of women in governance.

    Many women gave heartfelt experiences on intimidation and violence serving as lessons learnt. As dialogue turns in to action plans to better position women in governance, women’s empowerment has never been more relevant and timely, it’s time to influence a positive policy environment for women’s equal representation in positions of trust, and yield greater national development.

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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Namibia, Niger, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia


    This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 57 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:

    • Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    • Guinea worm in South Sudan

    • Cholera in Niger

    • Hepatitis E in Namibia

    • Humanitarian crisis in South Sudan.

    For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.

    A table is provided at the end of the bulletin with information on all new and ongoing public health events currently being monitored in the region, as well as events that have recently been closed.

    Major issues and challenges include:

    • A fresh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been confirmed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two provinces, North Kivu and Ituri, in the eastern part of the country bordering Uganda and Rwanda, have reported suspected cases. The affected subregion is experiencing intense insecurity, with several armed groups actively operating. Access to the affected population has been curtailed and provision of humanitarian assistance has been challenged. Population movement within the subregion and with the neighbouring countries is high, either forced or for trade and other social reasons. These factors are significant determinants of the evolution of and the response to the current event. The ongoing insecurity in the subregion will be critical in determining the ability to respond effectively to this event. In the given circumstances, the national authorities and partners need to mobilize and rapidly set up the requisite response structures and systems on the ground.

    • The South Sudan Ministry of Health has confirmed three cases of Guinea worm in Western Lakes State (located in the central part of the country) in the last week of July 2018. The affected area had been affected by communal violence over the past several years, which could have hindered surveillance for the disease. Before this event, South Sudan had reported the last confirmed Guinea worm case in December 2016 and the country had started the enhanced surveillance phase of the eradication process. With limited access to many parts of the country, this event could be indicative of a much bigger burden of the disease and a potential threat to the neighbouring countries.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Algeria, Côte d'Ivoire, Eritrea, Gambia, Guinea, Iraq, Italy, Libya, Mali, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, World

    Between 1 January and 31 July 2018, 2,896 unaccompanied and separated children arrived in Italy by sea, representing 16% of all sea arrivals in this period. Consistent with an overall decrease in sea arrivals this year so far, the numbers of UASC reaching Italian shores in the first seven months of 2018 are considerably lower than in the same period last year, when over 12,600 landed in Italy. However, the proportion of UASC among sea arrivals in the January-July 2018 period (16%) is only slightly higher than in January-July 2017 (13%).

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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, Ukraine, World, Yemen

    Un nouveau cadre social pour promouvoir la sécurité alimentaire et les systèmes alimentaires

    7 août 2018, Rome - Les guerres civiles et les conflits ont augmenté au cours de la dernière décennie, inversant la tendance qui reflétait une baisse de la faim à travers le monde.

    Les conflits font payer un lourd tribut aux communautés rurales qui pratiquent l'agriculture. En Syrie, la production de blé a chuté de 40 pour cent tandis que la production d'aliments transformés en Irak a également connu une forte chute. Lors de la guerre civile de Sierra Leone dans les années 90, 70 pour cent du bétail a été détruit et la production d'huile de palme et de riz a baissé de plus de 25 pour cent. Au Burundi, des recherches ont démontré qu'un individu exposé à la violence a cinq fois moins de chances de cultiver du café et ce, même quatre ans après la fin de la guerre.

    Au niveau économique, les pertes agricoles dues au conflit excèdent l'aide au développement international. Pire encore, les multiples impacts des conflits - dont les personnes déplacées de force et les enfants mal nourris - affaiblissent les progrès réalisés en faveur du développement dans les endroits où il y en a le plus besoin.

    Près de 75 pour cent des enfants accusant un retard de croissance dans le monde vivent dans des pays affectés par les conflits et 87 pour cent des personnes vivant dans une extrême pauvreté vivraient également dans des pays fragiles avec un environnement vulnérable.

    L'agriculture et les systèmes alimentaires sont extrêmement résilients mais comme l'a indiqué le Directeur général de la FAO, José Graziano da Silva devant le Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unis« lorsque ces systèmes sont perdus, il est presque impossible de les rebâtir ».

    Face à ces défis, la FAO a développé un nouveau cadre social afin de maintenir une paix durable dans le cadre du Programme de développement durable à l'horizon 2030, qui permettra à l'agence de transformer ses engagements dans les pays affectés par des conflits, en interventions stratégiques se fondant sur des preuves avec pour objectif de maintenir une paix durable.

    En résumé, ce cadre aide la FAO à élaborer ses interventions en prenant en compte la complexité des conflits en vue de contribuer à la prévention des conflits, de prévenir une escalade des violences et surtout d'éviter une répétition des conflits.

    L'Organisation s'est engagée à travailler « sur, dans et à travers » les conflits. Comme indiqué dans le Cadre social, cette approche inclue, respectivement, plusieurs actions afin de minimiser, d'éviter et de résoudre les conflits lorsque l'alimentation, l'agriculture et les ressources naturelles en sont les facteurs; de sauver des vies en protégeant les systèmes alimentaires et les biens productifs, en renforçant la résilience en plein milieu d'un conflit, en cherchant toujours à œuvrer en faveur du développement durable (et notamment pour la réduction de la pauvreté) et en gérant les ressources naturelles compte-tenu des conflits.

    Garder les fermes hors du conflit

    Alors que les conflits au sujet des ressources naturelles - y compris la terre et l'eau - sont de plus en plus fréquents, il est important de noter que l'agriculture - est un domaine qui peut être, selon le Cadre, « une source de paix ou de conflit, de crise ou de rétablissement, de tragédie ou de guérison. »

    La FAO aide les communautés rurales à faire face au conflit. L'Organisation a encouragé des approches participatives afin de renforcer les droits fonciers après les guerres civiles en Angola, en Côte d'Ivoire, au Mozambique et en Colombie. Les projets agricoles aident à la réintégration des anciens combattants dans le cadre de programmes de Désarmement, démobilisation et réintégration en Centrafrique, en République démocratique du Congo et aux Philippines.

    Travaillant aux côtés d'organisations onusiennes partenaires, la FAO contribue à maintenir la paix en Afghanistan, au bassin du Lac Tchad, en Birmanie, en Somalie, au Soudan du Sud, au Soudan, en Syrie, en Ukraine et au Yémen, entre autre - des pays et régions tous frappés par un conflit. Ce travail consiste notamment à aider à mettre en place des systèmes laitiers, à fournir des semences et des intrants agricoles, à élaborer des programmes de réponses face aux chocs et des programmes de protection sociale qui prennent en compte les risques et à soutenir les traités de paix locaux qui permettront de poursuivre les campagnes de vaccination du bétail - une spécialité de la FAO qui a permis d'obtenir des résultats historiques dont l'éradication de la Peste des Petits Ruminants alors qu'un conflit armé était en cours en Afrique de l'Est.

    L'un des thèmes récurrents est le soutien à la production alimentaire et ce, même dans les pires circonstances. Un autre élément qui se caractérise par ses multiples avantages comparatifs pour la FAO est le système d'alerte précoce, avec notamment les évaluations sécuritaires sur les semences, la quantité de fourrage disponible pour les éleveurs, la surveillance du marché et des prix des produits alimentaire, le Cadre Intégré de classification de la sécurité alimentaire (IPC), la Mesure et analyse de l'indice de résilience (RIMA), les bulletins d'alerte rapide sur les crises de la chaîne alimentaire et les bulletins trimestriels sur les alertes précoces et actions rapides sans oublier les nombreux réseaux de partenariats locaux tels que le programme de résilience contre la sécheresse avec l'IGAD en vue de soutenir les éleveurs dans la Corne de l'Afrique.

    Ces systèmes jouent un rôle essentiel au cœur des stratégies visant à renforcer la sécurité alimentaire en permettant notamment d'anticiper les potentiels conflits, d'atténuer les pertes humaines de ceux en cours et de réduire le risque de récurrence des conflits lorsque la paix a été acceptée.

    Alors que l'agriculture représente le premier secteur économique dans la plupart des pays affectés par un conflit aujourd'hui, le domaine revêt une importance qui va au-delà de la simple sécurité alimentaire, en étant capable d'être un moteur de stabilisation et de relance tout en contribuant à renforcer le tissu social.

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