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ReliefWeb - Updates on Sierra Leone

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    Source: BBC Media Action
    Country: Sierra Leone

    BBC Media Action has worked in Sierra Leone since 2007, using multiple platforms including radio, mobile, social media and interpersonal communication to address three key themes: governance and rights, health, and resilience and humanitarian response.

    Community access to health information is particularly valuable in countries with low numbers of health professionals, such as Sierra Leone. To understand more about the role media and communication can play in Sierra Leone, and the ways it can support efforts to rebuild the health system, BBC Media Action carried out a programme of research in Sierra Leone in late 2015.

    Using data from a national survey and from a qualitative study in four communities, this report looks at the potential role that communication could play in community health. The report shows there is strong interest from Sierra Leoneans in receiving more health information, but that many people tend to be passive recipients of this information rather than actively seeking it out - unless they face an emergency or particular health crisis. The implications for mass communication are discussed.


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    Source: US Agency for International Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, United States of America

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • Guinea confirms seven EVD cases between March 17 and April 6

    • Liberia confirms three EVD cases since March 31; genetic sequencing identifies link to Guinea cluster

    • USG partners respond to new EVD cases in Guinea and Liberia

    • USAID/OFDA provides $3 million for community-level and integrated disease surveillance in Sierra Leone

    KEY DEVELOPMENTS

    • On March 17, the Government of Guinea (GoG) and the UN World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed a new Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) cluster in Guinea. The cluster originated in N’Zérékoré Prefecture’s Koropara village and spread to neighboring Macenta Prefecture. The GoG had reported a total of seven confirmed and three probable EVD cases, including eight deaths, as of April 18. One individual remained in treatment at the N’Zérékoré EVD treatment unit (ETU) as of April 19.

    • Between March 31 and April 5, the Government of Liberia (GoL) confirmed three EVD cases in the capital city of Monrovia. The EVD-positive wife of a confirmed case in Macenta had traveled to Liberia with several family members; she died on March 31. Subsequently, her two children tested positive for EVD. On April 12, genetic sequencing confirmed an epidemiological link between the cases in Liberia and Guinea’s cluster. As of April 18, the children continued to receive care at Monrovia’s ELWA ETU.


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    Source: US Agency for International Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Projected Food Assistance Needs for October 2016

    This brief summarizes FEWS NET’s most forward-looking analysis of projected emergency food assistance needs in FEWS NET coverage countries. The projected size of each country’s acutely food insecure population (IPC Phase 3 and higher) is compared to last year and the recent five-year average and categorized as Higher, Similar, or Lower. Countries where external emergency food assistance needs are anticipated are identified. Projected lean season months highlighted in red indicate either an early start or an extension to the typical lean season. Additional information is provided for countries with large food insecure populations, an expectation of high severity, or where other key issues warrant additional discussion. Analytical confidence is lower in remote monitoring countries, denoted by “RM”. Visit www.fews.net for detailed country reports.


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    Source: International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies
    Country: Sierra Leone

    By Naoko Ishibashi, IFRC

    “When you push it and squeeze it, then if it cracks, it means the cocoa beans are dried well.”

    Dominic Moiwo scoops up a handful of cocoa beans from the heap of beautifully browned beans which have been spread out to dry in the sun in front of his store in eastern Sierra Leone. With a little imagination, one can see how these fragrant beans can be processed into delicious sweet chocolate.

    But for the 42-year-old cocoa purchasing agent, his story is bitter sweet. He was in the process of expanding his business in early 2014 and had just secured a loan from an agricultural bank when Ebola surfaced in Kailahun district; the epicentre of the outbreak in Sierra Leone and the location of Moiwo’s business.

    “Before Ebola came, I had a lot of customers,” says Moiwo. “But as Ebola killed most of them, I lost most of the money which I created from the company. I’m thinking it will take me five years for my business to fully recover from the effects of Ebola.”

    In the middle of taking phone calls from potential buyers, Moiwo describes the challenges of doing business during the outbreak.

    “I usually purchase 150 to 300 tonnes of cocoa in a normal year, but during Ebola, I could only purchase 25 tonnes. My boss, who is exporting the cocoa to Europe, was afraid to give me money as there was a high possibility of losing it. If either the customers or I died due to Ebola, he would not get that money returned,” explains Moiwo.

    There was also the issue of quarantines being put in place by the government which banned non-essential travel between districts. It meant any cocoa purchased by Moiwo would most likely not be transported for processing. “The quarantines made it difficult to move out the cocoa. The beans would be sitting here for one month. A lot of Ebola patients were transported by ambulances to Kailahun and they passed by the road in front of my store. Every time I heard the sound of an ambulance, I would wrap up the beans and run inside the store with them. Sometimes the patients would spit out the window and I was so afraid of how my product would be affected.”

    It has now been one year since Ebola cases were reported in Kailahun district. Quarantines have been lifted and “business is moving, but not as much.” Due to decreased yields and increased competition, Moiwo expects to purchase 120 tonnes of cocoa beans for export this year, better than during the outbreak, but still lower than normal years.

    “Ebola is the worst enemy I have ever had. It is worse than the war we experienced here. During the war, we crossed to neighbouring countries to flee. We were accepted. But Ebola closed everything. We couldn’t go anywhere and had no choice but to be ready to die.”

    In Sierra Leone, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies’ (IFRC) recovery plan of 44 million Swiss francs focuses on providing support to people affected by the outbreak, and includes activities related to strengthening resilience to future disease outbreaks, improving access to health care and psychosocial support, improving food security and livelihoods; and National Society development. The recovery plan is currently 1 per cent funded.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Guinea, Sierra Leone

    NEWS

    • On February 29 and March 17, three people died in the sub-prefecture of Koropara following an unknown disease characterized by fever, deep emaciation, diarrhea including vomiting of blood. A few days later, two other people developed the same symptoms. The tests, carried out on March 17, were positive to the Ebola Virus Disease, indicating the resurgence of the disease in Guinea, nearly three months after it was officially declared over by WHO

    • On March 9, 2016, IOM organized a ceremony during which, it officially handedover the health post of Kamakouloun to subprefectural authorities of Kamsar, prefecture of Boke. The health facility was rehabilitated and fully equipped by the organization.

    • From March 9 to 11, 2016, a joint IOM-RTIDPS mission went to different subprefectures of Boffa for a maiden contact with local authorities. The aim was to explain the criteria used in the selection of CHA (Community Health Assistants), validating the list of CHA provided by the DPS in their localities and selecting 30 participants for the participatory mapping exercise (10 wise men, 10 youths and 10 women).

    Situation of the Ebola virus disease after its resurgence in Guinea

    In the sub-prefecture of Koropara, located at 97km from the city of NZerekore, an approximately 50-year-old farmer along with his two wives died between February 29 and March 17, 2016 following an unknown disease characterized by fever, deep emaciation, diarrhea and vomiting of blood. A few days later, an 8-year-old girl and a 40-year-old-woman belonging to the same family developed the same symptoms. They were taken to an unknown place by the villagers. After negotiations between prefectural authorities and local populations, they finally accepted that the rest of the family be taken to the Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) of N’Zerekore for Ebola diagnostic tests. These tests were positive to the Ebola Virus Disease indicating the resurgence of the disease in Guinea, nearly three months after it was officially declared over by WHO.

    Following the resurgence of the disease in Koropara, in the forest region of Guinea, the Government and the National Coordination of fight against Ebola decided to set-up a micro-quarantine around the village to contain the widespread, identify contacts and research new cases. IOM Conakry sent teams to support the sub-office in N’Zerekore. It installed two health checkpoints at the entrance and the exit of the village. It deployed health screening and flow monitoring agents to ensure follow up of contacts. IOM also installed an isolation site provided with two generators to allow the HCP function. A third HCP was set-up at Koroh, on the road to Koropara. IOM will actively take part to the micro-quarantine of the area during the desired period to complete the containment.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Guinea, Sierra Leone

    NEWS

    • On February 25, 2016, in partnership with district and health authorities of Boké, the WHO and the Red Cross, IOM officially launched the community eventbased surveillance activities in the region.

    • From Friday the 26th to Monday the 29th, IOM organized a training session on Health Emergency Management (HEM) for health officials in the region of Boké.

    • On March 2nd, IOM officially handed over health posts of Kaffou and Layah to local authorities in presence of the Prefect of Forecariah, the Regional Health Director of Kindia alongside with many other district and health officials.

    Situation of the Ebola Virus Disease after its resurgence in Sierra Leone

    According to the March 2nd the WHO situation report, all contacts linked to the January 14th-20th EVD cases in Sierra Leone were released from follow-up by February 11th. If no further case is detected, the end of the transmission chain will be declared next March 17th.

    In Guinea, 1, 474 alert cases had been notified in the 34 prefectures of the country amongst which 1,467 concerned community deaths during the weeks of February 28th. During the same period, 9 operational laboratories tested a total of 392 samples including 14 coming from living people and 378 from dead bodies in 20 prefectures.

    Ebola Response partners remain vigilant throughout the country. They continue health screening activities in Forecariah and Kindia, bordering with Sierra Leone and in the Forest Region, bordering Liberia. Responding to the request of the Guinean government, IOM systematically screens all people crossing the 48 official and non-official points of entry (POEs) along the border with Sierra Leone.

    No new case has been reported in the country since the official end of the epidemic declared by the WHO on December 29th, 2015.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Guinea, Sierra Leone

    En bref

    • Deux personnes ont été confirmées positives aux tests de diagnostic rapides de maladie à virus Ebola (MVE) le 17 mars, après les décès de trois membres de leur famille des mêmes symptômes s’apparentant à ceux de la MVE. Cet événement marque la résurgence de la maladie à virus Ebola en Guinée, près de trois mois après sa fin officielle déclarée par l’OMS.

    • Le 9 Mars 2016, l’OIM a organisé une cérémonie au cours de laquelle elle a officiellement remis le Poste de Santé de Kamakouloun rénové et équipé par ses soins aux autorités de la Sous-Préfecture de Kamsar, Préfecture de Boké.

    • Du 9 au 11 mars 2016, une mission conjointe composée de l’OIM, RTI et la Direction Préfectorale de la Santé (DPS) s’est rendue dans les différentes sous– préfectures de Boffa pour présenter aux autorités locales les activités de surveillance à base communautaire et de cartographie participative.

    Situation de la maladie à Virus Ebola après sa résurgence en Guinée

    Dans la sous-préfecture de Koropara, située à 97 Km du centre-ville de N’Zérékoré, en Guinée forestière, un cultivateur âgé d’une cinquantaine d’années et ses deux épouses sont décédés fin février-début mars, suite à une maladie inconnue caractérisée par la fièvre, un amaigrissement profond, des diarrhées et des vomissements sanguinolents. A la même période, une petite fille de 8 ans et une femme de 40 ans appartenant à la même famille ont développé les mêmes symptômes. Leurs tests de diagnostics rapides se sont révélés positifs à la maladie à virus Ebola le 17 mars, marquant la résurgence de la MVE en Guinée, trois mois après sa fin officielle.

    Pour répondre à cette nouvelle crise, le Gouvernement Guinéen et la Coordination Nationale de lutte contre Ebola (CNLE) ont décidé de procéder au micro-cerclage de la zone pour contenir la propagation de la MVE, identifier les contacts et rechercher activement les nouveaux cas. L’OIM a installé très rapidement deux points de contrôle sanitaire (PCS) à l’entrée et à la sortie de Koropara avec déploiement d’agents de contrôle sanitaire et agents de suivi des flux migratoires à ces points pour assurer un suivi efficace des contacts. Elle a également procédé à l’installation d’un site d’isolement pourvu de 2 groupes électrogènes afin que les PCS puissent fonctionner en autonomie 24h/24h. Un troisième PCS a été installé à Koroh, sur la route menant à Koropara dès les premiers jours de la crise. L’OIM participera activement au micro-cerclage durant les 21 jours de l’opération aux côtés des partenaires de la Riposte Ebola.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Guinea, Sierra Leone

    En bref

    • Le 25 février 2016, l’OIM, en partenariat avec les autorités politiques et sanitaires de Boké, l’OMS et la Croix Rouge, a officiellement lancé les activités de surveillance à Base communautaire dans la région.

    • Du vendredi 26 au lundi 29 février, l’OIM a organisé une session de formation en Gestion d’Urgence Sanitaire (GUS) aux cadres de santé de la région de Boké.

    • Le 2 mars 2016, l’OIM a officiellement remis les postes de santé de Kaffou et Layah rénovés par ses équipes aux autorités locales en présence de Monsieur le Préfet de Forécariah, du Directeur Régional de la santé de Kindia et de plusieurs hauts responsables administratifs et sanitaires.

    Situation de la maladie à Virus Ebola après sa résurgence en Sierra Leone

    Selon le Rapport de situation de l’OMS du 2 mars 2016, tous les contacts liés aux cas de maladie à virus Ebola (MVE) datant du 14 et 20 janvier derniers sont sortis de la période d’observation le 11 février 2016. Si aucun nouveau cas n’est détecté avant le 17 mars, la fin de cette chaine de transmission sera déclarée.

    En Guinée, selon le même rapport, dans la semaine du 28 février, 1 474 alertes ont été notifiées dans les 34 préfectures du pays. 1 467 de ces alertes concernent des décès communautaires. Au cours de la même période, 9 laboratoires opérationnels ont testé un total de 392 échantillons dont 14 provenaient de personnes vivantes et 378 sur des corps de défunts venus de 20 préfectures différentes.

    Les partenaires de la Riposte Ebola en Guinée maintiennent la vigilance dans tout le pays. Ils continuent leurs activités de contrôle sanitaire dans les zones de Forécariah et Kindia, frontalières avec la Sierra Leone et dans la région forestière, frontalière avec le Libéria. A la demande du Gouvernement Guinéen, l’OIM poursuit ses activités de contrôle sanitaire au niveau de 48 points d’entrée (PE) officiels et non officiels de la frontière avec la Sierra Leone. Aucun cas suspect de MVE n’a été notifié en Guinée depuis la déclaration officielle de la fin de l’épidémie le 29 décembre 2015. La vigilance reste de mise dans tout le pays.


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    Source: UN Country Team in Sierra Leone
    Country: Sierra Leone

    April 22, 2016 by Resident Coordinator's Office

    The Chief of the Standing Police Capacity (SPC) in the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), Ms. Maria Appelblom, said this week that Sierra Leone has made impressive gains in community policing and called for a broader police–public partnership.

    Ms. Appelblom, from Sweden, concluded a 10-day visit to Cote d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone to capture lessons learned during the transition from conflict. She noted that lessons from previous UN missions, such as in Sierra Leone, could be applied to better meet the challenges in other countries with exiting UN Missions, such as Cote d’Ivoire and Liberia. Ms. Appelblom also highlighted the added value of the SPC support to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Sierra Leone, with a view to further strengthening cooperation.

    Referring to Sierra Leone’s successful transition from conflict, Ms. Appelblom said, “Successful developments have been made and I would like to see the lessons that can be captured from the transition in Sierra Leone being used for the benefit of other missions.”

    Since 2014, through its Access to Justice and Support to Security Reform Project, UNDP Sierra Leone has received support from DPKO for the deployment of Police Reform Advisors to strengthen the capacity of security sector agencies.

    During a site visit to the new Independent Police Complaints Board (IPCB) office premises currently being refurbished with UNDP support, Ms. Appelblom noted that UNDP’s support to the wider security sector is crucial, adding that good governance, security and rule of law are fundamental for lasting peace and sustainable development.

    The UN police chief also noted, “A closer partnership between the public and their police service would not only create trust between the police and the population but is a sure path to a safe environment, and would assist with maintaining public order and countering criminality.”

    During her mission in Sierra Leone, Ms. Appelblom also met the UN Resident Coordinator a.i, Mr. Gabriel Rugalema, UNDP Country Director, Mr. Sudipto Mukerjee and key members of his team, representatives from UNICEF and UN Women, and representatives from civil society groups. She also met with key security sector partners including the Director of Office National Security (ONS), the Inspector General of Police and his top management and the Chairman of the Independent Police Complaints Board (IPCB) among others.

    Ms. Appelblom also held meetings with the Human Right Commission, Sierra Leone Correctional Service, Local Policing Partnership Boards (LPPB), Paramount Chiefs, women leaders, youth leaders and a cross section of female police officers.

    The Sierra Leone Police, with support from UNDP, is currently running a community policing project covering three chiefdoms in Kambia District: Gbinle Dixon, Samu and Magbema, the three chiefdoms bordering Guinea.

    Paramount Chief Kokorioko Kondogbala II of Gbinlle Dixon Chiefdom noted, “Prior to the introducing of community policing in the chiefdom, armed robbery, cultism, cross-border crime, gangsterism and late-night shootings were rampant. Now, however, this has greatly declined due to the coordination between the community and the police.”

    The visit of the UN police chief coincided with that of the United Nations Peacekeeping Assessment Advisory Team. The team was in Sierra Leone to conduct an assessment of the Sierra Leone Police and Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces to evaluate their readiness to fulfil the country’s commitment to deploy troops as part of UN-backed peacekeeping missions.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Sierra Leone

    By Indrias G. Kassaye

    It’s been more than a decade since the students at the Harry C Primary school in Masorie, Sierra Leone, were able to drink from the well on school grounds. Now a UNICEF-supported rehabilitation project is bringing clean water back to schoolchildren and villagers in the community.

    MASORIE, Sierra Leone, 25 April 2016 – As Rosemarie Yema Blake pushed down on the water pump, a government technician held a plastic bottle under the spout to collect a sample from the gushing stream. Ms. Blake is an engineer from UNICEF’s NGO partner Living Water, and her most recent project brought her to an abandoned well at the Harry C Primary school in Sierra Leone’s Western Rural district. Students waited in anticipation to learn if, for the first time in more than a decade, the well would produce clean water.

    “The water was not good to drink before – it was corrosive and had metallic content,” said Earnest Joko Henry, head teacher at the school. “The well had lots of debris in it. And the people here said that rebels had been killed and thrown in the water during the war, so they refused to drink it.”

    The well had remained unused by the school and the villagers since Sierra Leone’s Civil War, which lasted from 1991-2002. Instead, students ventured to another well outside the school compound – a journey that cut into their class time.

    “When the children came to school, they had to go and fetch water to fill all the buckets for hand washing, which meant they only started their school day at about ten,” said Mr. Henry.

    Clean water returns

    With support from UNICEF, the well and pump at the school were recently rehabilitated. The final step in the rehabilitation process is testing the water, and the technicians confirmed that it was safe for the community to use, including for drinking. With one final chlorination, the well got the all-clear.

    “This is the only deep well in the community that doesn’t dry up during the dry season,” said Mr. Henry. “There are about 450 people living in this and the surrounding two villages and they all depend on this well. We are therefore very happy that it has been rehabilitated.”

    And from now on, students at the school no longer have to leave the school compound to get water.

    “Every morning we clean the pump and area around the well,” said 12-year-old Ali Kabia, the president of the school’s Child Health Club. The club works together with the School Management Committee to manage water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) at the school. “The water from the well is good now, so we are not afraid to use it and we are happy for that.”

    Disease prevention

    Since the rehabilitation, it has also become much easier for students to do the routine hand-washing that is part of the infection prevention and control procedures set up during the recent Ebola outbreak.

    “We wash the buckets and get water to wash the class and for hand-washing,” said 12-year-old Zeyneb Koromah, Ali’s deputy in the club. “We fill the handwashing buckets and make sure all children wash their hands with soap. And then we check their temperature before they can enter the class. We have good toilets for boys and girls, and separate ones for the teachers. We take turns scrubbing the toilets and making sure they stay clean.”

    In Sierra Leone, only 63 per cent of the population has access to safe drinking water. Improved sanitation facility coverage is even lower at 13 per cent. Having adequate water and sanitation facilities in schools is critical for ensuring a conducive learning environment for students, but only 23 per cent of schools have a functioning water supply.

    UNICEF is supporting the rehabilitation of water supply systems in 170 schools and 84 health facilities in eight districts in Sierra Leone as part of its support to the Government’s post-Ebola recovery programme.


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    Source: World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization, European Commission - Joint Research Centre
    Country: Central African Republic, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Liberia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen

    Executive summary

    This report provides a global overview of the food insecurity situation in global food crisis hotspots due to different crises and natural disasters, to support the programming of the Pro-resilience Action (PRO-ACT) 2016 funding mechanism, a component of the Global Public Goods and Challenges (GPGC) thematic programme of the European Union. The needs assessment consists of estimating the number of food-insecure people in countries that have been affected by a food crisis in 2015 based mainly on publicly released reports. The table below summarises the available data as in January 2016 in 70 countries analysed for this report. In a few cases (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria and Cameroon), the numbers only relate to particular areas within the country, and are therefore not representative of the national level. Great efforts have been made to harmonise the approaches across countries. However, as the input from the data sources may differ significantly across countries, the final figures may not correctly represent the current situation in the field.

    1 Background

    In 2012, the EU made a policy commitment to focus interventions on building the resilience of vulnerable communities by better targeting the root causes of food insecurity both in the geographical and thematic instruments of the new Multi-annual Financial Framework. This includes component 3 “Supporting the poor and food insecure to react to crises and strengthen resilience” of the Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture (FSSA) thematic instrument under the Global Public Goods and Challenges Programme (GPGC). This FSSA resilience-building thematic mechanism aims to ensure the complementarity of instruments for high-impact aid. It has an indicative budget of €525 million over the 2014-2020 period. The specific actions and the list of countries that would receive support are decided every year based on the following criteria: i) evidenced-based needs assessment (number of food-insecure people); ii) nature of the food and nutrition crisis; iii) capacity and complementarity of instruments; iv) other factors of vulnerability, including political considerations.

    This report addresses the two first criteria (needs assessment and nature of the crises) in the framework of the 2016 financial programming of the Pro-resilience Action (PRO-ACT). The principle is to evaluate the number of people who were in a food insecurity situation in the previous year (2015 for this exercise), i.e. in Phase 2 and above of the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC), and to identify as far as possible the main causes of food insecurity in selected countries. The PROACT interventions complement the humanitarian interventions of the previous year to help the community rebuild their livelihoods and improve their resilience to future shocks.

    The needs assessment is conducted in two phases: (i) identification of the main areas of concern (countries and regions) based on a rapid review of known crises; and (ii) detailed analysis of each selected country. The needs assessment is global and aims to include all countries that have been affected by a food crisis in 2015. The origin of the food crisis may be a particular shock or disaster such as an earthquake, cyclone, drought, etc. and/or protracted crises, namely prolonged armed conflicts. Countries that are chronically vulnerable to food crises and have large populations of foodinsecure people are included. A total of 70 countries were identified, estimating the number of foodinsecure populations classified (wherever possible) according to two categories of IPC phases. Twenty countries were then further analysed, and a detailed narrative on their situations is provided in this report. They are countries with discrepancies in their assessments from different sources and countries with complex situations that combine several risk factors, for instance countries with a very low socioeconomic development that are also subject to violent conflicts. The following countries were eventually selected for the detailed analysis: Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan and South Sudan in the Horn of Africa; Gambia, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone in West Africa; the Central African Republic (CAR); Yemen and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) in Asia; Haiti and the countries of the Central American Dry Corridor (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua); and Papua New Guinea. The types of crises affecting each of those countries are described in the respective sections. In addition, a dedicated section summarises the impacts of the 2015 El Niño episode on food security in countries most affected and of interest to EU Food Security programmes. The number of countries that were analysed increased from circa 40 for the previous analysis in January 2015 to 70 in this edition of the report (January 2016), mainly because of the impact of El Niño.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    • UNHRD continues to dispatch operational equipment for its Partners, most recently supporting WFP by sending ICT equipment to Freetown in Sierra Leone.

    • During the worst of the crisis, UNHRD facilities in Accra and Las Palmas served as regional staging areas and the Accra depot hosted UNMEER headquarters.

    • On behalf of WFP, UNHRD procured and dispatched construction material and equipment for remote logistics hubs, Ebola Treatment Units (ETU) and Community Care Centres. In collaboration with WHO, UNHRD also procured and dispatched equipment to establish camps for teams tracing EVD.
      Members of the Rapid Response Team (RRT) set-up supply hubs, an ambulance decontamination bay and ETUs.


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    Source: International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    Current epidemiological situation, country-specific information + Post-Ebola systems strengthening

    The Ebola outbreak in West Africa which was first reported in March 2014 quickly became the deadliest occurrence since its discovery, killing more than all other known Ebola outbreaks combined. More than 25 months from the first confirmed case, over 11,000 people have been reported dead from the disease in the three most affected West African countries of Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone.
    WHO declared the end of the Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. The International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding EVD noted that since its last meeting, Guinea,

    Liberia, and Sierra Leone have all met the criteria for confirming interruption of their original chains of Ebola virus transmission. The Committee also noted that, although new clusters of EVD cases continue to occur as expected, including a recent cluster in Guinea, all clusters to date have been detected and responded to rapidly.

    Guinea was last declared free of Ebola transmission linked directly to the original outbreak on 29 December 2015. On March 17, a new EVD cluster was reported.
    The cluster originated in N’Zérékoré Prefecture and spread to neighbouring Macenta Prefecture. There has been a total of seven confirmed and three probable EVD cases, including eight deaths, as of April 18. All 5 confirmed cases are epidemiologically linked to a chain of 3 probable cases in the sub-prefecture of Koropara: Two females in their late 30s, and a male in his late 50s. All 3 probable cases died and were not buried safely.
    Investigations have determined that the first probable case (a female in her late 30s) had symptom onset on or around mid-February 2016. The source of her infection is being investigated.


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    Source: UN General Assembly
    Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Colombia, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, World, Yemen

    Summary

    The present report, which covers the period from January to December 2015, is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 63/282, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to submit an annual report on the Peacebuilding Fund.

    The Peacebuilding Fund celebrated a number of milestones in 2015, including the launch of its first cross-border initiative along the Kyrgyzstan-Tajikistan border and the allocation of over 15 per cent of investments to support women’s empowerment. Flexible management of the Fund in crisis-affected countries, including Burundi, Mali and Yemen and Ebola-affected countries, ensured that critical human rights and security initiatives were maintained in settings from which most donors had withdrawn their support. Despite these gains, waning finances have begun to limit the availability of funds to match demand.

    As recognized by independent global reviews, sufficient and predictable resources for peacebuilding will be needed for the Peacebuilding Fund to continue to realize its universally recognized role of supporting early, high-risk peacebuilding and promoting system-wide coherence.

    I. Introduction

    1. The present annual report, which covers the period from 1 January to 31 December 2015, is the sixth report submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 63/282. It will be complemented by a financial report to be issued by the Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office no later than 1 May 2016. Additional information is available from www.unpbf.org, and complete information on individual projects is available on the Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office Gateway (http://mptf.undp.org).

    II. Global performance and lessons learned

    2. The year 2015 was dominated by key reviews of the role of the United Nations in making and sustaining peace, namely, the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations, the review of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture and the High-level review of the implementation of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000), which validated the Peacebuilding Fund’s role in incentivizing a system-wide, politically engaged response and in promoting coherence in crisis settings. As a central pillar within the peacebuilding architecture, the Peacebuilding Support Office welcomes the recommendations of those reviews, many of which it has already begun to implement.

    3. The call by the review of the peacebuilding architecture for greater engagement between the Peacebuilding Commission and the Fund was advanced as early as June at the Commission’s annual session, during which participants issued a strong warning about the dangers of a fragmented and underresourced funding system. Those concerns were echoed during an informal meeting on Somalia — a Fund-recipient country — hosted by the Commission in November, at which participants agreed on the critical importance of predictable and coherent funding. Building upon that momentum, starting in 2016, the Fund will approach the Commission to host informal discussions on the five-year vision of newly eligible Fund-recipient countries.

    4. Calls by the reviews for strengthened partnership with international financial institutions implicitly recognize the importance of coherence, not just in relation to peacebuilding initiatives, but also to the development strategies that follow. In that spirit, the Peacebuilding Support Office and the World Bank solidified their cooperation in 2015, with the Bank hosting the semi-annual meeting of the Fund’s Advisory Group in November. In addition to mapping the way forward on joint evaluations in the Central African Republic and Somalia, the meeting also highlighted progress on the thematic review of employment and peacebuilding, an initiative bringing together the Peacebuilding Support Office, the World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Labour Organization (ILO). Following the meeting, the Fund and the World Bank held their first quarterly meeting to plan joint approaches to project design, monitoring and evaluation to better align their work in the future.


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    Source: UN General Assembly
    Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Colombia, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, World, Yemen

    Résumé

    Le présent rapport, qui porte sur la période allant de janvier à décembre 2015, est soumis en application de la résolution 63/282 de l’Assemblée générale, dans laquelle celle-ci a prié le Secrétaire général de lui présenter chaque année un rapport sur le Fonds pour la consolidation de la paix.

    Le Fonds pour la consolidation de la paix a franchi plusieurs étapes importantes en 2015, notamment en mettant en oeuvre sa première initiative transfrontière, le long de la frontière entre le Kirghizistan et le Tadjikistan, et en allouant plus de 15 % de ses investissements à la promotion de l’autonomisation des femmes. Grâce à une gestion souple des ressources du Fonds dans des pays en situation de crise, notamment au Burundi, au Mali et au Yémen et dans les pays touchés par le virus Ebola, des projets essentiels pour les droits de l’homme et la sécurité ont été maintenus dans des lieux qui ne bénéficiaient plus de l’appui de la plupart des donateurs. Malgré ces avancées, la baisse des financements signifie que les fonds disponibles commencent à ne plus correspondre aux besoins.

    Ainsi que cela a été établi dans le cadre d’examens mondiaux indépendants, il faudra consacrer des ressources suffisantes et prévisibles à la consolidation de la paix pour que le Fonds puisse continuer à s’acquitter de son rôle universellement reconnu, qui consiste à appuyer la consolidation de la paix dès ses premiers stades et dans des situations présentant des risques élevés et à promouvoir la cohérence à l’échelle du système des Nations Unies.

    I. Introduction

    1. Le présent rapport annuel, qui porte sur la période allant du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2015, est le sixième établi en application de la résolution 63/282 de l’Assemblée générale. Il sera complété par un rapport financier que le Bureau des fonds d’affectation spéciale pluripartenaires publiera le 1er mai 2016 au plus tard. On trouvera des renseignements complémentaires sur le site du Fonds pour la consolidation de la paix (www.unpbf.org) et des informations détaillées concernant les différents projets mis en oeuvre sur le portail du Bureau des fonds d’affectation spéciale pluripartenaires (http://mptf.undp.org).

    II. Résultats mondiaux et enseignements tirés de l’expérience

    2. L’année 2015 a été marquée par d’importantes analyses du rôle que l’Organisation des Nations Unies joue en matière d’établissement et de maintien de la paix, à savoir l’examen du Groupe indépendant de haut niveau chargé d’étudier les opérations de paix, l’examen du dispositif de consolidation de la paix des Nations Unies et l’examen de haut niveau de la mise en oeuvre de la résolution 1325 (2000) du Conseil de sécurité, qui ont confirmé l’importance que le Fonds pour la consolidation de la paix revêt en encourageant une mobilisation engagée sur le plan politique à l’échelle du système et en promouvant l’unité d’action en situation de crise. Principal pilier du dispositif de consolidation de la paix, le Bureau d’appui à la consolidation de la paix se félicite des recommandations issues de ces examens et a déjà commencé à en mettre en oeuvre un grand nombre.

    3. La nécessité d’une collaboration accrue entre la Commission de consolidation de la paix et le Fonds pour la consolidation de la paix, soulignée lors de l’examen du dispositif de consolidation de la paix, a été exprimée dès le mois de juin lors de la session annuelle de la Commission, au cours de laquelle les participants ont fermement mis en garde contre les dangers d’un système de financement fragmentaire et ne disposant pas des moyens nécessaires. Ces préoccupations ont également été évoquées lors d’une réunion informelle sur la Somalie – l’un des pays bénéficiaires du Fonds − organisée par la Commission en novembre, au cours de laquelle les participants sont convenus de l’importance cruciale de disposer d’un financement prévisible et cohérent. À la faveur de cette dynamique, à compter de 2016, le Fonds demandera à la Commission d’organiser des discussions informelles sur les ambitions pour les cinq années à venir des nouveaux pays admis à bénéficier de ses projets.

    4. Les appels en faveur du renforcement du partenariat avec les institutions financières internationales qui ont été lancés dans le cadre des examens reconnaissent implicitement l’importance de la cohérence, pour ce qui est non seulement des projets de consolidation de la paix mais aussi de l’élaboration des stratégies de développement ultérieures. Dans cette optique, le Bureau d’appui à la consolidation de la paix et la Banque mondiale ont accru leur coopération en 2015, la Banque ayant accueilli en novembre la réunion semestrielle du Groupe consultatif du Fonds. En plus d’ouvrir la voie à des évaluations communes de la situation en République centrafricaine et en Somalie, cette réunion a également mis en relief les progrès accomplis en ce qui concerne l’examen thématique de l’emploi et de la consolidation de la paix, une initiative réunissant le Bureau d’appui à la consolidation de la paix, la Banque mondiale, le Programme des Nations Unies pour le développement (PNUD) et l’Organisation internationale du Travail (OIT). À l’issue de cette réunion, le Fonds et la Banque mondiale ont tenu leur première réunion trimestrielle visant à planifier des approches communes de la conception, du suivi et de l’évaluation de projets, l’objectif étant de mieux harmoniser leurs travaux à l’avenir.


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    Source: Global Polio Eradication Initiative
    Country: Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Jordan, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Ukraine, World

    This World Immunization Week, we are closer than ever to the target of a world free of polio, with just two remaining polio endemic countries- Afghanistan and Pakistan. Read more about what remains to be done to carry the world across the threshold here.

    Around the world, countries that remain vulnerable to polio are continuing to vaccinate children and build immunity, as shown in Jordan through this series of photographs.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Sierra Leone

    In Sierra Leone, a new initiative offers classes and resources to pregnant teenage girls, who are otherwise prohibited from attending school. Meet Adama, who became pregnant during the Ebola crisis but refuses to give up on her education.

    KAMABAI, Sierra Leone, 28 April 2016 – Stepping into the classroom at the WCA Primary School in Kamabai, Bombali District, you immediately notice two things – all of the students are female, and many of them are visibly pregnant.

    This is no ordinary school. These classes are part of a new initiative supported by the Ministry of Education, Science & Technology, UNICEF, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), IrishAid and the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID). The programme provides education opportunities to girls in Sierra Leone who became pregnant during the recent Ebola outbreak.

    Many of the girls and young women like 19-year-old Adama Conteh tell a similar story: living in vulnerable households, the rejection that came with becoming pregnant, and the immediate end to their regular schooling.

    “I miss going to my normal school. I miss playing and talking with my friends,” said Adama, who was attending her second year at Junior Secondary School when she became pregnant. Her father died several years ago, and her mother scratches out a living growing ground nuts, beans and rice, though last year’s harvest was poor and the beans were burned in a bush fire.

    Pregnant in emergencies

    Visibly pregnant girls are not allowed to attend school in Sierra Leone. During the Ebola outbreak, more than 14,000 teenage girls became pregnant, including 11,000 who were in school before the outbreak, according to a study by UNFPA. For adolescent girls who got pregnant during the emergency, there is a high risk that many may not return to school.

    “The teenage pregnancy rate increased so much in this area during the Ebola period, especially when schools were closed down for that long period,” said Mary Sesay, headmistress of the WCA Primary School, where classes for teenage girls and young mothers are held outside of regular school hours.

    “Since we started this programme, we have been counselling girls on the dangers of teenage pregnancy and the repercussions on their growth and development. I am happy that the Government and the others thought about doing this kind of programme because it gives the girls an opportunity to make amends and take another shot at making their future better.”

    With funding from DFID and Irish Aid, the Government and UNICEF are supporting more than 14,500 pregnant and recently pregnant teenage girls. They will be aided in schools and Community Learning Centres, and through school radio programmes while at home.

    Breaking the cycle of poverty

    “What I normally tell the girls is that education is the key to success,” said Ms. Sesay. “Women who are educated are almost always active family members. They are strong pillars in their families and are able to bring up their children and educate them. But if you have little or no education, your children will also be affected and the poverty cycle will continue in your family.”

    Ms. Sesay also strongly encourages the girls to return to the normal school system after they give birth. According to her, some of the girls who enrolled in the programme were able to take the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE). She is hopeful that the majority will proceed to senior secondary school.

    For Adama, the opportunity to continue her education has made a huge impact, and prevents what potentially could have been a complete end to her schooling.

    “I attend the classes because I don’t want to lag behind much, since I can’t go to the normal school. I am very happy that this programme was brought here to help girls like me to continue learning even in this condition.”

    After giving birth, she plans to return to regular school, and continue pursuing her dream of becoming a nurse.


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    Source: International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies
    Country: Sierra Leone

    A. Situation analysis

    Description of the disaster

    In early September 2015, the Bo, Bonthe, Freetown, Port Loko and Pujehun districts in the southern provinces of Sierra Leone experienced flooding due to torrential rains which led to widespread destruction. According to the Government of Sierra Leone Office of National Security (ONS) the total affected population in the five districts reached 24,303 as of October 2015: Bo (3,293), Bonthe (4,650) and Port Loko (1,510), Freetown (14,050) and Pujehun (800).

    In Freetown, an estimated 14,050 displaced people are staying in the Attouga Mini Football Stadium and National Football Stadium; however the conditions in these sites are not satisfactory – with limited access to safe drinking water, poor sanitary facilities, and the risk of epidemic outbreaks (Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD), cholera, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) etc.).

    In the Bo, Bonthe, Port Loko and Pujehun districts, people evacuated to nearby communities, seeking refuge with relatives or in public buildings (government buildings, mosques, schools etc.). In many of the more remote communities, assistance had not reached the affected population, leaving them exposed to the continuing rains. On 14 September 2015, the government appealed to humanitarian organisations to help in assisting the affected population.

    On 18 September 2015, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) released CHF 88,050 from the Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) to support the Sierra Leone Red Cross respond to the needs of 2,630 people (567 families), affected by flooding in Bo and Pujehun districts for a period of three months, specifically in the areas of health and care, shelter and settlements, water, sanitation and hygiene promotion.

    On 12 October 2015, Operation update no 1 was issued announcing an additional allocation of CHF 196,950 bringing a total allocation of CHF 285,000 for the DREF Sierra Leone floods operation to enable the Emergency Plan of Action (EPoA) to expand its activities to meet the needs of families in the city of Freetown (East End and West End), and the chiefdoms of Bonthe and Port Loko, which were also experiencing extensive flooding. In total, 24,303 beneficiaries/people i.e. (4,051 households) were reached through this DREF operation. Operations update no 2 was issued on 18 December 2015 to extend the timeframe of the DREF operation by six weeks and to enable the completion of an operational review exercise. This report is being issued as preliminary, because some expenditures were booked only recently, and require time for financial systems to reflect them. A final report will be re-issued next month with a final financial report.

    This operation was partially replenished by Canadian Red Cross /DFATD. The major donors and partners of the DREF include the Red Cross Societies and governments of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the USA, as well as DG ECHO, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) the Medtronic, Zurich and Coca Cola Foundations and other corporate and private donors. The IFRC, on behalf of the Sierra Leone Red Cross Society would like to extend many thanks to all partners for their generous contributions.


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