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ReliefWeb - Updates on Sierra Leone

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo

    In northern Niger, two flow monitoring points have been activated since February 2016 in the city of Séguédine and Arlit, followed by the activation of new flow monitoring points in Dan Barto, Magaria and Tahoua in August 2018 and the point in Dan Issa in September 2018.

    This report presents the data collected through the 6 flow monitoring points for the month of November 2018.

    During this period, an average of 1,755 individuals per day was observed, which represent an increase of 52% compared to the previous month. 76% of identified migrants were adult men, while 14% were women and 10% were minors. Nigerien nationals represented the vast majority of the individuals (71%) observed at the six FMPs followed by Nigerians (18%) and Chadians (3%).

    The main reasons for migration were long-term economic migration (34.7%), seasonal migration (33.7%), short-term local movements (29.1%) and tourism (2%).

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    West Africa can be divided into three agro-ecological zones or three different trade basins (West Basin, Central Basin and East Basin). Both important for understanding market behavior and dynamics.

    The three major agro-ecological zones are the Sahelian, the Sudanese and the Coastal zones where production and consumption can be easily classified. (1) In the Sahelian zone, millet is the principal cereal cultivated and consumed particularly in rural areas and increasingly, when accessible, in urban areas. Exceptions include Cape Verde where maize and rice are most important, Mauritania where sorghum and maize are staples, and Senegal with rice. The principal substitutes in the Sahel are sorghum, rice, and cassava flour (Gari), the latter two in times of shortage. (2) In the Sudanese zone (southern Chad, central Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, southern Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Serra Leone, Liberia) maize and sorghum constitute the principal cereals consumed by the majority of the population. They are followed by rice and tubers, particularly cassava and yam. (3) In the Coastal zone, with two rainy seasons, yam and maize constitute the most important food products. They are supplemented by cowpea, which is a significant source of protein.

    The three trade basins are known as the West, Central, and East basins. In addition to the north to south movement of particular commodities, certain cereals flow horizontally. (1) The West basin refers to Mauritania, Senegal, western Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and The Gambia where rice is most heavily traded. (2) The Central basin consists of Côte d'Ivoire, central and eastern Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Togo where maize is commonly traded. (3) The East basin refers to Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Benin where millet is traded most frequently. These three trade basins are shown on the map above.

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    Source: CBM
    Country: Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Nicaragua, occupied Palestinian territory, Sierra Leone, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World

    Providing Education to Persons with Disabilities - Case Studies

    CBM is launching its book on Inclusive Education at the G20 Summit in Buenos Aires on 29 November 2018. To mark this event, we have compiled a list of case studies highlighting the important of inclusive education.

    Special school transformation in Burkina Faso

    The Integrated Education and Training Centre for Deaf and Hearing People (CEFISE), a CBM partner in Burkina Faso, originally ran a day special school for deaf learners. The school built up expertise in educational provision, audiology, speech and language, and psychological support services. The school director then decided that the school should accept hearing learners with and without disabilities alongside deaf and hard of hearing learners.

    The school now employs deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing teachers who work together in most classes, particularly in early education classes. There are transition classes for deaf learners who start school late. They provide a language- and communication-rich environment for one to two years, after which these learners are included alongside other deaf and hearing learners in inclusive classes. Inclusive classes have sign language interpreters. The school still provides audiological assessments and hearing aids for those who can benefit from them. Deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing learners experience a bilingual education and deaf and hearing cultures.

    While the school now supports learners with other disabilities, those with autism or other complex learning needs are still referred to specialist centres in the city. Nevertheless, CEFISE’s school now provides capacity building and resource support to other schools in Burkina Faso.

    Mainstream and special schools working together in Vietnam

    In a programme run by Nguyen Dinh Chieu school (CBM’s partners in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam), children who are blind have choices as to whether to attend mainstream schools or remain in the resource centre in segregated classes where there are boarding facilities. Some of those who attended the residential resource centre for a year or two and then went to their local community school said they missed the extracurricular activities available at the resource centre, such as music, art, and vocational training. They preferred to return to the residential facility, as their community school was unable to offer such extracurricular activities. In response to the children’s views, and to encourage children to choose to stay and feel more comfortable in their local community school, the resource centre offered extracurricular activities on weekends and during holidays, for children at mainstream schools. The school also provided more support for learners in the community school through resources provided by the resource centre and in-service training for mainstream teachers.

    Using radio for home-based education in Sierra Leone

    In 2011, the international child rights agency Child to Child and its local partner, Pikin to Pikin Movement, ran an ECD programme in Kailahun District, an area badly affected by the country’s civil war. Because of the postconflict context, a programme called Getting Ready for School had a strong focus on life skills and child protection.

    When the Ebola outbreak hit the area in early 2014, the ECD programme stopped. It was too dangerous to bring learners and teachers together. The programme was converted into a child-friendly and participatory ‘radio for education’ series called Pikin to Pikin Tok, which is still running.

    There are three radio programmes. One is aimed at very young children, using traditional storytelling to address real-life issues and help develop numeracy and literacy skills. The second uses music to achieve similar aims, for slightly older children. The third is for older children, and it supports them in thinking critically about life skills issues that have emerged since the Ebola outbreak, such as increased stigma, exclusion, disability, sexual violence, and teenage pregnancy.

    The radio programmes give a voice to marginalised children and young people in Kailahun District. The aim is to inspire children to work together to tackle the stigma and exclusion they face from being affected by Ebola. The radio programmes help them learn about minimising the risks of catching Ebola and other serious diseases, and about other health and life skills messages, which they then share with peers and neighbours.

    Children co-create the content of the radio programmes; 36 have been trained as young journalists who identify stories and conduct interviews. Wind-up solar powered radios have been distributed and children are supported to listen to the broadcasts by trained adult volunteer facilitators. Through phoneins, children can share their experiences of the issues addressed in the programme, and adults are on hand to support the discussions.

    The role of persons with disabilities in teacher training in Iraq

    In northern Iraq, the Ministry of Education developed introductory courses on inclusive education for Ministry-employed teachers, and awareness-raising sessions for education leaders. Local DPOs helped identify adults with disabilities who could contribute to the trainings. Deaf and blind adults shared their personal stories about the role education had played in their lives. They demonstrated assistive resources and daily living techniques. Deaf adults taught basic sign language to teachers, using words the teachers wanted to learn. They also demonstrated visual story-telling.

    At awareness seminars for school principals, education officials, and decision makers, persons with disabilities were included as participants, contributing their perspectives on inclusion. Disability rights advocates were guest lecturers, “providing detailed theoretical and practical information, and delivering hard-hitting messages on combatting discrimination.”

    Feedback from participants indicated that this approach “helped teachers to see people with disabilities as partners in upholding the rights of children in their classes, rather than as passive recipients of charitable services.” The training activities initiated or reinforced cooperation between DPOs and the inclusive education programme.

    Empowered parents support inclusion in Nicaragua

    CBM has worked with ASOPIECAD in Nicaragua on CBR work since 2006. In 2012, the partnership helped 561 children with disabilities be included in mainstream education. One of those children was Maria, a 10-yearold girl with Down syndrome. The CBR programme guided and supported her family so that they could better support Maria to attend a mainstream primary school and participate in community life. The CBR workers initially visited the family to help them overcome their fear of taking Maria to public places. They saw potential in the levels of care given by Maria’s mother and encouraged her to attend CBR trainings. Maria’s mother was so inspired and encouraged that she now works with the CBR programme, sharing her experiences and supporting and encouraging other families to include their children in school and community life. She provides families with advice and support on early education in her own community as well as in the municipality, and she offers support to members of parents’ self-help groups.

    Collaborative local-level advocacy in India

    A programme supported by CBM – Regional Action on Inclusive Education Northeast in India – is developing a resource centre approach to supporting inclusive education, offering opportunities to bring different stakeholders together for advocacy purposes. Special schools are being transformed into these resource centres. The programme has partnerships with CBR, local government, and community services, such as health, education, and training institutions to advocate for inclusive education within communities.

    Around the world, resource centres are often given quite a narrow role, such as hosting specialist staff who provide supportto children and teachers. The CBM-supported resource centres in India are designed more holistically, as hubs for a range of inclusive education activities. They share knowledge, build teacher capacity, distribute assistive and low-vision devices, provide information and communication technology (ICT) support, provide early learning kits and audiobooks, support inclusive education programmes and vocational and livelihoods capacity building, and conduct advocacy.

    As part of their advocacy role, the resource centres:

    • network with government education departments and other service providers;
    • support the formation of parents’ groups to work together on advocacy and self-help activities;
    • develop and deliver inclusive education awareness programmes, including among community health workers; and
    • facilitate the empowerment of inclusion champions, self-advocates, and children’s groups.

    CBM's book on Inclusive Education

    Inclusive education as an approach is still not widely understood. This publication explores the challenges and provides practical suggestions on how to support disability-inclusive education systems that can better meet both the general and specific learning needs of all children, including those with disabilities. It recognises that inclusive education is a complex process and aims to help governmental and non-governmental actors to navigate the most suitable pathways to change. Access the book here.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes quinquennales, qui indiquent les tendances saisonnières, et aux prix de l'année précédente.

    L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.

    Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2) Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Serra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3) Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.

    Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé. (2) Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Key Messages

    • Preliminary crop assessment figures in West Africa indicate that the 2018/19 aggregate cereal production will be 74.2 million metric tons (MMT), eight percent above last season (2017/18) and 19 percent above the five-year average (2013/14 to 2017/18). Although national-level production decreases are expected in structurally deficit countries, production of major cereal crops has grown significantly compared to last year, namely maize production.

    • West Africa is expected to have an increased gross marketable surplus of coarse grains and a decreased rice deficit compared to last year and the average. Projected coarse grain surpluses, namely maize, will be in high demand from agro-industries. The region will continue to rely on international rice imports, although to a slightly lesser degree than in recent years and international wheat imports will be sustained at above-average quantities.

    • The 2017/18 marketing year (MY) was marked by below-average supply and above-average demand due to limited crop performance and production deficits in the Sahel, stock withholding, and elevated source market prices. In Coastal countries, prices were primarily pushed up by inflation.

    • With good harvest prospects and favorable current market trends, price trends will be below last year but will range from average to moderately above average at the national level, except in Chad and Far North Cameroon where they will be below average. Imported and local rice prices will remain above average in Coastal countries. Prices and markets and trade activities will remain atypical in deficit and conflict affected zones including the Tibesti region of Chad; northern and central Mali; and the Liptako-Gourma region across Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger; and northeast Nigeria and the Greater Lake Chad basin. Declining global crude oil prices and upcoming general elections also stand to negatively affect stability and the macroeconomic outlook for Nigeria and the surrounding region.

    • Global market supplies of rice, wheat, and maize are expected to remain above average in MY 2018/19 despite expectations for lower wheat production. Prices will continue to ease up until the end of the year, but a marginal increase is projected for 2019.

    • The pastoral situation in the Sahel is much better than last season due to decent rainfall. The pastoral lean season will be normal. However, an early transhumance may occur from localized deficit areas and livestock feeding, and marketing will be disrupted in insecure conflict zones.

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    En Guinée, 5 points de suivi ont été installés depuis avril 2017 dans les localités frontalières avec le Mali et le Sénégal dont 3 sont actifs à ce jour. Il s’agit des localités de Kouremalé, Nafadji et Boundoufourdou où l’on observe les mouvements des voyageurs. Cette infographie est un résumé des données collectées sur l’ensemble des points de suivi au cours du mois de novembre 2018. Au cours de ce mois, Bamako, Dakar, Conakry, Labé et Manda ont été non seulement les principales villes de départ mais aussi les principales destinations ayant enregistré plus de 1 000 voyageurs. Les flux observés au cours de ce mois ont montré des pics hebdomadaires qui correspondent aux jours de marché. Deux principaux moyens de transport ont été identifiés: les voitures (88% des flux) et les bus (11% des flux). La principale nationalité observée au cours de ce mois sont les Guinéens (77%). En novembre, les principaux mouvements.

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    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    I. Introduction

    1. The present report covers the period from 1 July to 31 December 2018 and provides an overview of developments and trends in West Africa and the Sahel. It also outlines the activities of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS) and progress made in the implementation of the United Nations integrated strategy for the Sahel. In addition, it provides an update on the situation in the Lake Chad basin, pursuant to Security Council resolution 2349 (2017).

    II. Developments and trends in West Africa and the Sahel

    1. Since my last report (S/2018/649), the political situation in West Africa and the Sahel has remained stable despite significant security challenges, in particular in Burkina Faso, the Niger and Nigeria, with an increase in the cross-border activities of terrorist groups and a retreat of State authorities from peripheral zones where populations continue to live precariously. Countries of the subregion have been working together to address the complex political, security and development challenges at the root of the growing insecurity.

    2. During the reporting period, a presidential election was held in Mali, regional and parliamentary elections in Mauritania and local elections in Côte d’Ivoire. The next cycle of electoral processes is causing simmering tensions across the region.

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    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    I. Introduction

    1. Le présent rapport, qui porte sur la période allant du 1er juillet au 31 décembre 2018, donne un aperçu de l’évolution de la situation et des tendances observées en Afrique de l’Ouest et au Sahel et décrit les activités du Bureau des Nations Unies pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest et le Sahel (UNOWAS) et les progrès accomplis dans la mise en œuvre de la stratégie intégrée des Nations Unies pour le Sahel. Y figure également, comme le Conseil de sécurité l’a demandé dans sa résolution 2349 (2017), une évaluation de la situation dans le bassin du lac Tchad.

    II. Évolution de la situation et tendances observées en Afrique de l’Ouest et au Sahel

    1. Depuis mon dernier rapport (S/2018/649), la situation politique en Afrique de l’Ouest et au Sahel est demeurée stable, malgré de graves problèmes de sécurité, en particulier au Burkina Faso, au Niger et au Nigéria, où on a observé une recrudescence des activités transfrontalières de groupes terroristes et un retrait des autorités étatiques des zones périphériques où les populations continuent de vivre dans la précarité. Les pays de la sous-région ont œuvré de concert pour s’attaquer aux difficultés complexes liées au contexte politique, aux questions de sécurité et aux problèmes de développement qui sont à l’origine de l’insécurité croissante.

    2. Au cours de la période considérée, une élection présidentielle a eu lieu au Mali, des élections régionales et parlementaires se sont tenues en Mauritanie et des élections locales en Côte d’Ivoire. Le prochain cycle électoral fait naître des tensions qui touchent l’ensemble de la région.

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    Source: UN Office on Drugs and Crime
    Country: Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Libya, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Syrian Arab Republic, World


    Linking conflict, violence and exploitation

    In 2016, more countries were experiencing some form of violent conflict than at any other time in the previous 30 years.1 People living in conflict-affected areas may experience abuse, violence and exploitation, including trafficking in persons. The risk of trafficking in persons is also connected with the high numbers of refugees. A need to flee war and persecution may be taken advantage of for exploitation by traffickers.

    Trafficking in persons in the context of armed conflict has received increased attention by the international community. In November 2017, the United Nations Security Council addressed the topic in Resolution 2388 and reiterated its deep concern that trafficking in persons in areas affected by armed conflict continues to occur. It also underscored that certain offences associated with trafficking in persons in the context of armed conflict may constitute war crimes.2 Moreover, the Security Council reiterated its condemnation of all acts of trafficking undertaken by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Boko Haram, Al-Shabaab, the Lord´s Resistance Army and other terrorist or armed groups for the purpose of sexual slavery, sexual exploitation and forced labour.

    In Resolution 2331 of December 2016, the Security Council requested the Secretary-General to take steps to improve the collection of data, monitoring and analysis of trafficking in persons in the context of armed conflict.4 In response, the present study examines how trafficking in persons occurs in the context of armed conflict through an analysis based on an extensive literature review, a review of case narratives from international tribunals and interviews with personnel from United Nations peacekeeping operations.5 Trafficking in persons is another dimension of the violence, brutality and abuse that occur in the context of armed conflict. While trafficking takes many forms, it always involves the purpose of exploitation. Victims are trafficked for exploitation in forced labour in different sectors, from agriculture to mines. They are also trafficked to serve as domestic servants, for sexual exploitation or for armed combat. Children are often recruited into armed groups for forced labour in a range of military-related roles. As one expert described it: “when there are armed groups you may find all kinds of exploitation”.

    Factors contributing to trafficking in persons in armed conflict

    The generalized violence that characterizes conflict areas shapes the conditions for a series of actors, including armed groups, to force or deceive civilians into exploitative situations.

    A combination of different elements characterizing armed conflicts increases the risks of trafficking. Armed conflicts amplify the social and economic vulnerabilities of the people affected. In addition, the erosion of the rule of law, which safeguards and protects individuals in peacetime, is one common consequence of armed conflict. The breakdown of state institutions and resulting impunity contribute to generating an environment where trafficking in persons can thrive.

    Forced displacement is another factor that contributes to an individual’s vulnerability to trafficking. In 2017, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that over 68 million people were forcibly displaced because of persecution, conflict, violence or human rights violations.

    Displaced persons may have limited access to education, financial resources or opportunities for income generation. This provides a fertile environment for traffickers to promise safe migration routes, employment and education or skills training, and deceive them into exploitative situations. Children who are displaced or separated from their families without support networks are particularly vulnerable to becoming targets for traffickers.8 Discrimination and/or marginalization of minorities compel many to leave family and friends behind in search of safety and protection. The breakdown of social ties and diminishing levels of regular economic activity in conflict settings may force people to search for alternative livelihoods.

    Trafficking into and out of armed conflicts

    In conflict areas, trafficking in persons for sexual slavery, recruitment of children into armed groups, forced labour and abduction of women and girls for forced marriages are the most commonly reported forms of trafficking.

    Armed groups use trafficking as part of their strategy to increase their military power and economic resources, but also to project a violent image of themselves and instil fear in local populations. Armed groups also use sexual violence and sexual slavery as part of their operations. In some conflicts, for example, the prospect of receiving ‘sex slaves’ as a reward for joining the group is part of the armed groups’ strategies to recruit new fighters.

    Trafficking in persons related to armed conflict also occurs outside specific conflict areas. This is typically linked to higher levels of vulnerability experienced by people living on the margins of conflict, such as internally displaced persons, refugees and others living in nearby areas affected by armed conflict. In these situations, victims are primarily trafficked for sexual exploitation, forced labour, forced marriages or for multiple forms of exploitation. People using migrant smugglers to flee conflicts may end up as victims of trafficking, coerced into forced labour or sexual exploitation to pay off the smuggler fees.

    Defining trafficking and other crimes in the conflict context

    Trafficking in persons is a complex phenomenon occurring in a range of different settings. The internationally agreed definition from the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, defines the crime in terms of three constituent elements, namely the act, the means and the purpose.

    It is sometimes challenging to distinguish between different crimes; a challenge that is even more acute in conflict situations. A range of crimes may include elements of persons being transported, recruited or transferred with some form of coercive, deceptive or abusive means for the purpose of being exploited. For instance, conflict-related sexual violence13 may encompass aspects of trafficking in persons. Violent and exploitative crimes such as sexual slavery in conflict areas typically stem from a trafficking process, as they involve an act (often recruitment and/or transportation) and a means (often coercion) as well as a purpose (exploitation). The trafficking occurs when armed groups abduct and/or coerce persons into forced marriages, which has been observed in many armed conflicts worldwide and continues to take place on a significant scale.

    The recruitment of children, and sometimes also the coerced or deceptive recruitement of adults, into armed groups is another example of trafficking in persons. These children and adults are used as combatants or subdued into sexual slavery or used in various supportive roles. In many cases, ‘child soldiers’ are recruited or abducted and subsequently exploited, which qualifies this conduct as trafficking in persons. The recruitment of children by armed groups is included among the six grave violations against children15 and considered a war crime.16 Trafficking in persons is reported by UN agencies and other international organizations in different ways.
    UNODC has made efforts to establish the facts of situations discussed in this study to assess whether the conduct in question was, in fact, trafficking in persons. However, it was not always possible to establish with certainty as the available information of the different cases was often incomplete. Some of the crimes discussed in this study may clearly be defined as trafficking in persons, while others exhibit elements of trafficking in persons in the way they were carried out. For example, cases of conflict involving sexual violence or war crimes have been documented by many organizations. While some of these include elements of exploitation they may not necessarily qualify as trafficking in persons.

    Structure of this booklet

    This booklet presents the status of knowledge on trafficking in persons in the context of armed conflict. It is based on an extensive review of literature and reports from regional and international organizations combined with primary information collected from areas where armed conflicts have been discussed by the United Nations Security Council. It draws on cases investigated by the international criminal tribunals and interviews with United Nations peacekeeping personnel based in field missions located within or in the proximity of conflict zones. A detailed methodology, interview questions and list of respondents is annexed to this booklet.
    The first section presents an overview of the main forms of trafficking that have been identified within and in the surroundings of conflict areas. The subsequent section describes commonly identified victim profiles and outlines the main factors impacting their vulnerability to trafficking. The third section identifies main perpetrators and analyses the ways in which trafficking in persons is used as part of their modus operandi. The final section presents examples of trafficking in persons in conflict scenarios on the agenda of the Security Council (where enough information was available).

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Sierra Leone

    In Numbers

    111 mt of food assistance distributed

    US$ 21,300 cash-based transfers made US$3.5 m six months (December 2018-May 2019) net funding requirements, representing 27% of total

    16,727 people assisted in November 2018

    Operational Updates

    • As integrated part of the Governments free quality school education initiative, WFP resumed its support for the national school feeding programme in 11 vulnerable chiefdoms in Pujehun and Kambia districts, where food insecurity and nutrition indicators were amongst the highest in Sierra Leone according to the latest CFSVA. In November, 146 mt of food commodities was successfully dispatched to targeted schools in the districts of Pujehun and Kambia targeting 28,909 children. Gradual increase is expected in the coming months to target the full 35,000 children. Plans are near completion for scale up of school feeding to Government assisted schools in Karene, Bonthe and Kailahun Districts (SRAC). Distributions are planned for January 2019.

    • WFP, through the UN Renewed Efforts Against Child Hunger and undernutrition (REACH) activities, supported the Scaling up Nutrition (SUN) secretariat to conduct stakeholder mapping to identify all nutrition actors in Sierra Leone in November 2018. WFP initiated this cooperation through the implementation of a series of ‘post- harvest management, value addition and quality handling training’ workshops for WFP food for asset farmers and Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA) supported farmers. JICA highlighted the benefits of utilising the technical package (SRPP-TPR) practises for increased production and water management whilst WFP showcased effective post- harvest management handling.

    • In November, 5,048 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV/AIDS) received in-kind food assistance as part of food-by-prescription (FbP) nutritional support nationwide.

    • As part of WFP’s exit strategy for nutritional support to those affected by HIV/AIDS, cash-based transfers were provided to 200 vulnerable people in the Western Area Rural and Western Area Urban in Sierra Leone. The cash transfer is expected to enable households nutritional support as well as address relapses of people living with HIV (PLHIV) after exiting from programme. The support is used to meet basic needs and supporting their livelihoods thus preventing them from relapse. In November, WFP reached 196 beneficiaries as part of this programme.

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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe


    This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme (WHE) is currently monitoring 60 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key ongoing events, including:

    • Ebola virus disease outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Cholera in Burundi
    • Cholera in Cameroon
    • Yellow fever in Nigeria.

    For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.

    Major issues and challenges include:

    • The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is in a critical phase as it enters its sixth month since the declaration of the outbreak. Despite the use of an effective vaccine, novel therapeutics as well as other EVD strategic interventions, the outbreak is persisting due to security challenges, pockets of community reluctance and inadequate infection prevention and control in some health facilities. Nevertheless, WHO and partners, under the government’s leadership, continue to respond to the EVD outbreak and remain committed to containing the outbreak.

    • The Ministry of Health of Burundi has declared a new outbreak of cholera in the country. This outbreak, which is rapidly evolving, is particularly affecting people living in overcrowded areas, where sanitation conditions are precarious. Given that the risk factors for transmission of water-borne diseases are prevalent in the affected communities, there is a need to aggressively tackle this outbreak at its early stage using relevant sectors in order to avoid further spread.

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    Source: World Bank
    Country: Benin, Cabo Verde, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Uganda, World

    Submitted by Hugo Wesley
    co-authors: Lorenzo Piccio

    Sub-Saharan Africa knows more than its fair share of disasters induced by natural hazards. The past few months alone have seen drought in the Horn of Africa, floods in Mali and Rwanda, and landslides in Ethiopia and Uganda. Between 2005 and 2015, the region experienced an average of 157 disasters per year, claiming the lives of roughly 10,000 people annually.

    Disasters can have a debilitating impact on countries’ growth and development prospects. Losses from disasters are only expected to rise as the impacts of climate change intensify across the region. Given these challenges, governments have often been reliant on external aid and budget reallocation to pay for disaster recovery. However, this financing strategy comes at a cost. Uncertainty and delays in aid flows tend to complicate planning for relief and recovery efforts, and budget reallocations can divert funding from vital development programs.

    Launched in 2015, the Africa Disaster Risk Financing (ADRF) Initiative works with 19 African countries to develop and implement tailored financial protection policies and instruments which can help them respond quickly and resiliently to disasters. The ADRF Initiative is the first program in Africa to focus on the broad disaster risk finance (DRF) agenda. It is financed by the European Union (EU) and implemented by the World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), as part of the Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) – EU Program, Building Disaster Resilience in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    At the most basic level, DRF aims to strengthen countries’ ability to manage economic and fiscal stresses when disasters strike. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to disaster risk financing—countries have a wide array of financial protection policies and instruments to consider, including sovereign risk finance, social protection programs, as well as agriculture and risk insurance programs. Since its inception, the ADRF Initiative has focused on three areas to pioneer DRF in Africa:

    Gathering and developing disaster risk information

    The ADRF Initiative is developing multi-hazard disaster risk information for nine countries in Africa: Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Kenya, Niger, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal, and Uganda. This information is used to inform dialogue on DRF with national governments, thus shaping the broader disaster risk management agendas in these countries. For instance, data collected in the development of a risk profile for Mozambique has informed the dialogue on school safety, detailing the financial impact of disasters on schools, and laying the case for the need to invest in making schools more resilient to disaster.

    Developing DRF strategies to achieve national financial protection priorities

    The ADRF Initiative is supporting national governments of 19 African countries to develop financial protection policies, instruments and strategies, which are tailored to the local context. It is engaged with Ministries of Finance to conceive and design country-driven contingent financing options and strategies in several countries, including Cape Verde, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Lesotho and Benin.

    With ADRF assistance, the World Bank approved a catastrophe credit for Kenya in June 2018, providing a $200 million contingent line of credit to the country. While preparing to develop this credit, the government of Kenya approved a National Disaster Risk Financing Strategy—the first to be implemented in Africa. Kenya also improved its policy framework for managing natural hazard risks in urban, land, and water management.

    The ADRF Initiative is also supporting countries establish shock responsive safety nets that rapidly deliver emergency assistance to vulnerable households in the event of a disaster (as in Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Sierra Leone), as well as agriculture insurance programs, which unlock critical assess to credit for low-income farmers (as done in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda).

    Sharing knowledge and lessons learned

    The ADRF Initiative has already organized nearly 60 knowledge exchanges and trainings, designed to gather and disseminate lessons learned and build the capacity of governments. In May 2018, an event was organized on the margins of the Understanding Risk Forum in Mexico City. Attracting more than 60 participants, including 40 Sub-Saharan African government delegates, the event was the largest assembly of African DRF practitioners to date, demonstrating the impact of the initiative in building DRF capacity among governments in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    While the ADRF Initiative has made huge leaps in pioneering DRF across the region, it does take time for policy and institutional changes to take effect and build the strong relationships with governments, which are needed to get DRF off the ground. Yet, against the backdrop of intensifying climate and disaster risk, this has also been clear from experience on the ground— enthusiasm for DRF and its potential to help countries respond more quickly and resiliently to disasters isn’t in short supply. This is cause for optimism that a resilient future for the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa is on the horizon.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Algeria, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canary Islands (Spain), Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, occupied Palestinian territory, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Spain, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, World, Yemen

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    Source: Migration Policy Institute
    Country: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, World

    A not-insignificant share of the European Union’s resident irregular migrant population comes from sub-Saharan Africa. Even though estimates of the unauthorized population in EU Member States are notoriously imprecise, comparing the number of non-EU nationals (formally known as third-country nationals) ordered to leave with the number who departed suggests that the resident unauthorized population has grown by up to 3 million persons over the past ten years. And sub-Saharan African nationals accounted for around one-fourth of this growth, with a significant share coming from Nigeria (13 percent), Senegal (8 percent), and Eritrea (7 percent). Despite increased EU efforts in recent years to work with sub-Saharan countries to accept the return of their nationals, return rates remain low.

    Amid publics increasingly anxious over migration, particularly since the 2015-16 crisis that saw hundreds of thousands of asylum seekers and economic migrants cross the Mediterranean, EU and national policymakers have placed new emphasis on deterring arrivals and stepping up the pace of returns.

    In 2017, EU countries carried out 189,545 returns of irregular migrants to third countries, of which 9,235 were to sub-Saharan Africa (see Table 1). The numbers remain small considering that only slightly more than one-third of non-EU nationals ordered removed actually were returned. The 2017 total was nearly 18 percent less than the number removed in 2016.

    An initial focus by the European Union on formal readmission agreements with migrant-origin countries has given way since 2016 to informal ones. This article examines this informal turn and explores the potential effect that nonbinding readmission pacts could have on migrant returns to sub-Saharan Africa, challenging the assumption that such agreements will have a significant effect on future return levels agreed upon by EU and African policymakers. The analysis also evaluates EU reliance on return totals as an indicator of policy effectiveness and questions whether policy success can be quantified, considering data and other limitations.

    The Framework for Returns

    A decade after EU Member States agreed to establish common rules for managing the return of irregular migrants, European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker in his 2018 State of the Union address outlined a proposal for recasting the EU Return Directive to create a “stronger and more effective European return policy.”

    This proposal reiterated the goal of increasing cooperation with origin countries, explicitly noting that it as a precondition for sustainably returning unauthorized migrants to their points of origin. Historically, the European Union and individual Member States have predominantly sought to ensure cooperation of origin countries by reaching readmission agreements, which broadly set out obligations and procedures to accept timely returns of irregular migrants and failed asylum seekers in exchange for favorable policies such as visa liberalization or financial incentives.

    More recently, however, the European Union has quietly, yet significantly, changed its approach. Whereas the European Commission once exclusively sought formal readmission agreements, in 2016 it began to negotiate and conclude informal arrangements with third countries. The Commission’s 2018 proposal for a new EU Return Directive notes that “several legally nonbinding arrangements for return and readmission have been put in place.” The shift occurred as the Commission found great difficulty in finalizing formal accords with third countries, especially those whose populations rely on remittances from diasporas irregularly residing in Europe. Informal arrangements keep readmission deals largely out of sight, and thus take away domestic pressure on governments to refrain from cooperating on returns.

    Sub-Saharan African State Returns

    The European Union’s return and readmission policy has devoted particular attention to ensuring cooperation of sub-Saharan African states over the past two decades due to the very small number of returns of their nationals residing irregularly in Europe.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Bangladesh, Côte d'Ivoire, Eritrea, Gambia, Guinea, Iraq, Italy, Mali, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, World

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Ethiopia, Ghana, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan

    SO FAR IN 2018

    16,458 MIGRANTS Assisted with voluntary return to 32 Countries across Africa and Asia

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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe


    This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme (WHE) is currently monitoring 60 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key ongoing events, including:

    • Ebola virus disease outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Lassa fever in Togo
    • Humanitarian crises in Central African Republic
    • Hepatitis E in Central African Republic.

    For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.

    Major issues and challenges include:

    • The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) persists and continues to be closely monitored. Response operations have fully resumed in all locations; however, contact tracing remains challenging. The outbreak in Beni is continuing to improve despite temporary disruption of response activities due to security challenges. WHO remains committed to support the MoH in responding to the EVD outbreak. These will require the continued implementation and intensification of traditional and novel response strategies with adequate involvement of all relevant stakeholders.

    • The hepatitis E outbreak in the Republic of Central Africa is ongoing. Six months following the onset of the outbreak, the trend is improving. However, transmission is persisting in some areas despite response efforts. There is a need to intensify control measures and address risk factors in order to contain this outbreak.

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    Source: World Health Organization, UNAIDS, UN Children's Fund
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, World

    DAKAR/GENEVA, 16 January 2019—At a high-level meeting in Dakar, Senegal, UNAIDS, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) urged countries in western and central Africa to do more to stop new HIV infections among children and adolescents and increase HIV testing and treatment coverage.

    In 2017, around 67 000 children (aged 0–9 years) and 69 000 adolescents (aged 10–19 years) became newly infected with HIV. Two thirds (46 000) of adolescents newly infected with the virus were girls. While progress has been seen in stopping new HIV infections among children in some countries—eleven countries registered a reduction of more than 35% between 2010 and 2017[1]—others, including Nigeria, which has the largest epidemic in the region, experienced no declines at all.

    “Countries in western and central Africa have a real opportunity to create a positive change for children and young people,” said Michel Sidibé, Executive Director of UNAIDS. “Underlying issues including a lack of domestic investment, fragile health systems, user fees, gender inequality and widespread stigma and discrimination must urgently be addressed to remove barriers and save lives.”

    In western and central Africa, close to 800 000 children and adolescents aged between 0 and 19 years were living with HIV in 2017—the second highest number in the world after eastern and southern Africa.

    “The majority of children living with HIV in this region are not receiving care and treatment because they do not know they have HIV as they have not been tested,” said Marie-Pierre Poirier, UNICEF Regional Director for West and Central Africa. “We can reverse that trend by focusing on a family-centered approach to HIV testing and treatment and by rolling out innovative point-of-care technologies that bring testing closer to the primary health facilities and the communities where children live.”

    Less than half of all pregnant women living with HIV in the region (47%) had access to antiretroviral medicines to prevent transmission of the virus to their child and only 21% of infants exposed to HIV were tested for the virus within the first two months of life.

    We should not lose anymore of Africa’s future to AIDS,” said Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. “Effectively tackling HIV in children and adolescents needs strong and quality health services. By committing to universal health coverage, countries can fast-track progress towards an AIDS-free generation in western and central Africa.”

    Although there has been some progress in antiretroviral therapy coverage for children in western and central Africa, which rose from 18% in 2014 to 26% in 2017, the region still has the lowest coverage in the world. Around 52 000 children and adolescents aged between 0 and 19 years died of AIDS-related illnesses in 2017—34 000 of whom died before they reached their fifth birthday.

    In the 2016 United Nations General Assembly Political Declaration on Ending AIDS, countries from western and central Africa committed to work towards reducing the number of new HIV infections among children and young adolescents (under 15 years) to 6000 by 2020 and to ensuring access to treatment for 340 000 children and young adolescents (under 15 years) by 2020.

    However, pledges to accelerate the HIV response have not been accompanied by a surge in resource mobilization. The total resources needed for an effective response in western and central Africa were 81% greater than the funds available in 2017.

    Translating commitments into action requires engagement from political and community leaders, drastically scaling up investments, scaling up innovative technologies such as point-of-care for early infant diagnosis, differentiated service delivery strategies—including family testing and longer prescriptions for antiretroviral medicines—and task-shifting approaches applied to HIV care and treatment services for children across the region.

    As part of concerted efforts to step up progress in the region, UNAIDS, UNICEF and WHO called a High-Level Meeting on the Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Universal Health Coverage of Paediatric HIV Testing and Treatment in West and Central Africa to unpack the challenges, share best practices and innovative approaches to address the persisting bottlenecks, agree on corrective actions and ensure commitment to action from countries and partners.

    Hosted by the Government of Senegal, the meeting is being held in Dakar from 16 to 18 January 2019, bringing together ministers of health, experts, representatives of civil society and partners from across the region as well as high-level representatives of United Nations organizations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States and the Economic Community of Central African States.

    During the meeting, countries and partners are expected to renew their commitment to the 2015 Dakar Call to Action for Accelerating the Elimination of New HIV Infections in Children and Access to Treatment for Children and Adolescents Living with HIV by 2020.

    [1] Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo.


    UNICEF works in some of the world’s toughest places, to reach the world’s most disadvantaged children. Across 190 countries and territories, we work for every child, everywhere, to build a better world for everyone. For more information about UNICEF and its work for children in West and Central Africa, visit

    WHO | Africa Region

    The WHO Regional Office for Africa is one of WHO’s six regional offices around the world. It serves the WHO African Region, which comprises 47 Member States with the Regional Office in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. As the lead health authority within the United Nations system, we work with the Member States in the African Region and development partners to improve the health and well-being of people.


    The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) leads and inspires the world to achieve its shared vision of zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths. UNAIDS unites the efforts of 11 UN organizations—UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP, UNDP, UNFPA, UNODC, UN Women, ILO, UNESCO, WHO and the World Bank—and works closely with global and national partners towards ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. Learn more at and connect with us on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube.

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    Source: GFDRR
    Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Dominica, Ghana, Guatemala, Madagascar, Myanmar, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tajikistan, World, Yemen


    This report highlights the results achieved during fiscal year 2018. It provides an overview of GFDRR’s activities as implemented in countries across its eight areas of engagement. The report also outlines GFDRR’s contribution to the global resilience agenda over the period, and its efforts to develop innovative solutions, tools, and analytical products for strengthening the global knowledge base for disaster risk management.


    Fiscal year 2018 (FY18) was punctuated by a succession of serious disasters. In the Caribbean, Hurricane Irma caused almost total destruction on the island of Barbuda, and in the Pacific, Cyclone Gita caused $186 million in damages in Tonga. Monsoon flooding devastated South Asia, with 41 million affected in Bangladesh alone. The Puebla earthquake struck central Mexico, with the loss of 370 lives and the collapse of buildings in Mexico City, and in Guatemala, as many as 3,000 people died in the eruption of the Fuego volcano.

    These were just some of the better-documented disasters—flooding in China, Peru, and Zimbabwe, and landslides in Colombia, Sri Lanka, and Sierra Leone may have received less coverage but were no less devastating for affected communities. For many observers, it was the year that climate change became a frightening reality rather than a theoretical future menace. It is already contributing to the frequency and intensity of disasters, its impact magnified by rapid and increasing urbanization in the developing world, and exacerbated in countries afflicted by fragility, violence, and conflict.

    Against this backdrop, GFDRR’s portfolio continues to grow at the rate of 10-15 percent per annum. In FY18 139 new grants and commitments totaling $53 million were approved, bringing the active portfolio to $252 million, supporting 394 activities and 136 countries.
    These grants address the full range of natural hazards, with flooding, earthquakes and landslides receiving the greatest share. GFDRR continued to track the contribution of the portfolio in helping countries achieve the Sendai Framework’s priorities and targets for disaster risk reduction. 45 percent of grants contributed to the reduction of damage to critical infrastructure and basic services, and 41 percent helped to reduce economic losses from disasters. The portfolio continued to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s).

    About this Report

    This Annual Report highlights the progress and results achieved during FY18. It provides an overview of grant making activities in six regions and across GFDRR’s eight targeted areas of engagement, and a section of Special Features explores various areas of work in greater depth. The report also provides information on the Facility’s financial health. Over the past fiscal year, GFDRR strengthened its reporting, monitoring, and evaluation (M&E) systems through the development of an updated Logical Framework and underpinning results indicators. These align with the FY18–21 strategy and provide the Facility with a better understanding of outcome-level progress and trends within the portfolio. GFDRR is committed to further strengthening its M&E practice, ensuring that evidence and lessons from across the portfolio are available to inform management decisions. Results of the FY18 program, as measured against the results indicators, are available in the report’s annex. Additionally, data points gleaned through the M&E system are available throughout the report, providing more information on GFDRR’s portfolio trends and progress.

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