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ReliefWeb - Updates on Sierra Leone

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Sierra Leone

    In Numbers

    24.2 mt of food assistance distributed
    US$ 0 cash based transfers made
    US$ 7,914,883 six months (May-Oct 2018) net funding requirements, representing 64% of total
    2,229 people assisted in April 2018

    Operational Updates

    • WFP conducted two review meetings with district nutritionists and District Health Management Team in Port Loko and Makeni in northern Sierra Leone.
    Among the issues discussed include, admission and exit criteria, anthropometric screening and availability of tools. The objective of the review was to identify bottlenecks affecting the implementation of treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM),
    Nutrition Assessment Counselling and Support for TB clients on Directly Observed Treatment and for People Living with HIV on ART, and suggest corrective measures in addressing key issues affecting those activities.

    • WFP received a donation of food commodities (SuperCereal, wheat-soya blend and veg oil) from Project Peanut butter (PPB) which was used in the Four Foods study in Sierra Leone undertaken by Tufts University and USAID, with links to Washington University St Louis. As the food study comes to an end, the donated food will be used in WFP’s ongoing MAM treatment program.

    • WFP in collaboration with Sierra Leone Red Cross Society assisted families affected by political violence in the northern district of Masingbi town.
    WFP provided 60 kg of rice per household as dry ration for one month and vegetable oil, while Sierra Leone Red Cross Society provided sanitary kits and clothing for families that repatriated to their places of origin in the eastern Kono district following postelection violence. Alongside the take-home package for returning families, WFP also provided wet ration for families that are staying.

    • Work is ongoing across 57 food assistance for assets (FFA) creation schemes located across Bombali, Port Loko and Pujehun districts, where farmers are working to develop 385 ha of irrigated lowlands for year-round production of rice. FFA supported lowland development is assisting 9,525 beneficiaries.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, World

    L’OIM travaille avec les autorités nationales, locales et des partenaires locaux, afin de mieux comprendre et connaître les mouvements migratoires à travers l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. Le suivi des flux de population (FMP) est une activité qui permet de quantifier et de qualifier les flux, les profils des migrants, les tendances et les routes migratoires sur un point d’entrée, de sortie ou de transit donné. Au Mali, des point de suivi ont été installés progressivement depuis juillet 2016 dans plusieurs lieux importants à Gao, Tombouctou, Kidal, Ménaka, Mopti, Kayes, Ségou, Sikasso et Bamako, et observent plus particulièrement les mouvements quotidiens des migrants en provenance et à destination des pays d'Afrique de l'Ouest et d'Afrique du Nord.

    La moyenne journalière du nombre d’individus observés aux différents points de suivi des flux a augmenté de 7% par rapport au mois précédent.
    Les ressortissants Maliens, Guinéens, Ivoiriens, Sénégalais et Gambiens représentent 79% des migrants identifiés aux points de suivi de flux.
    L'Algérie, la Mauritanie, le Niger et le Burkina Faso constituent les points de transit principaux des migrants après leur passage au Mali.
    La migration économique (plus de 6 mois) est le type principal de migration observé.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Key Messages

    Markets are sufficiently stocked in most of the region but are below average levels in many countries due to localized deficits and traders holding food stocks. Market demand is seasonally high, and often higher than average. Local cereal prices are slightly above average and will likely remain at this level until the lean season. Deficits in livestock pastureland in addition to the continuing decrease in exports to Nigeria continues to affect the terms of trade for livestock/cereals, a disadvantage to pastoralists.

    Land preparation for the 2018/2019 agricultural season have started in the Sudanian and Sahelian zones. Rainfall forecasts published in May for June to September 2018 by the regional meteorological centers indicate higher than average rainfall totals in most all the agropastoral areas of the Sahelian countries except from central Mauritania to Chad. Similar conditions are expected in northern Benin, Togo, Nigeria and the extreme north of Cameroon. In the coastal countries, rainfall totals may be average to below-average in the south of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia (except the southeast), and the west of Cote d’Ivoire. In the coastal areas of Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau rainfall totals may be near average.

    Stressed (IPC Phase 2) food insecurity is affecting poor households in Wadi Fira, Kanem, Barh El Gazel, Batha and Moyen Chari in Chad and the east and west of Mauritania due to poor harvests. It will continue until September in the Goudam Lakes area, the Niger River Delta, the western Sahel and the pastoral areas of Gao and Timbuktu in Mali, the Sahelian region of Burkina Faso, the pastoral areas of Tahoua, Agadez, Zinder, Maradi in Niger, and many other parts of the agricultural and agropastoral areas.

    Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food insecurity is affecting Diffa region in Niger and the Lake Chad region due to Boko Haram conflict and will remain at this phase until September and will expand to the regions of Wadi Fria, Kanem, Barh El Gazel, Batha and Hadjer-Lamis in Chad were pastoral conditions are concerning. It will also affect CAR due to armed conflict, the extreme north of Cameroon impacted by the Boko Haram conflict, production deficits and atypically high food prices, and the center and west of Mauritania due to loss of crops and pastureland and the significant deterioration of livelihoods that negatively affect consumption for poor households.

    In Nigeria, despite the general improvement of security conditions and better humanitarian access to populations affected by the conflict, these populations still face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) levels of food insecurity in the north of Yobe and in a large part of Borno, and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) in the north and east of Borno, and in the neighboring areas of the forest of Sambisa (south Borno and Yobe). Security conditions and food security could be worse in the areas that are still inaccessible.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Messages clés:

    Les marchés sont suffisamment approvisionnés dans une grande partie de la région, mais à des niveaux inférieurs à la moyenne dans plusieurs pays en raison de déficits localisés et de la rétention continue des stocks par les acteurs du marché. La demande est en hausse saisonnière et supérieure à la moyenne. Les prix des céréales locales demeurent supérieurs à la moyenne et resteront ainsi jusqu'à la période de soudure. Les difficultés alimentaires du bétail ainsi que la réduction persistante des possibilités d'exportation vers le Nigéria continuent d'affecter les termes de l’échange bétail/céréales en défaveur des éleveurs.

    Les préparations de sols pour la campagne 2018/19 ont débuté en zones soudaniennes et sahéliennes. Les prévisions de précipitation pour la période Juin-Septembre 2018 publiées en Mai par les centres régionaux indiquent des cumuls excédentaires à normaux dans pratiquement toute la zone agropastorale des pays sahéliens allant du centre de la Mauritanie au Tchad. Il en est de même dans le nord du Benin, Togo, Nigéria et l’extrême Nord du Cameroun. Dans les pays côtiers, ces cumuls pourraient être normaux à déficitaires dans le sud de la Guinée, la Sierra Leone, le Liberia (sauf le sud-est) et l’ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire. Dans la zone littorale au Sénégal, Gambie et Guinée Bissau les cumuls pourraient être globalement moyens.

    L’insécurité alimentaire Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) affecte les ménages pauvres des régions de Wadi Fira, Kanem, Barh El Gazel, Batha et Moyen Chari au Tchad et l’Est et l’Ouest de la Mauritanie du fait des mauvaises récoltes. Elle persistera jusqu’en Septembre dans la zone de Lacs de Goundam, du Delta du Niger, dans le Sahel Occidental et dans les zones pastorales du Gao et Tombouctou au Mali, la région du Sahel au Burkina Faso, au Niger dans les zones pastorales de Tahoua, Agadez, Zinder, Maradi et plusieurs parties des zones agricoles et agropastorales.

    L’insécurité alimentaire Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) qui affecte la région de Diffa au Niger, la région du Lac au Tchad du fait du conflit de Boko Haram se maintiendra jusqu’en septembre et s’étendra au Tchad dans les régions de Wadi Fira, Kanem, Barh El Gazel, Batha et Hadjer-Lamis où les conditions pastorales sont préoccupantes. Elle affecte aussi la RCA du fait du conflit armé, l’Extrême Nord du Cameroun impacté par le conflit de Boko Haram, des déficits de production et des hausses atypiques de prix des aliments et dans le centre et l’ouest de la Mauritanie du fait de l’échec des cultures et/ou des pâturages et de la détérioration significative des moyens d’existence qui affectent négativement la consommation des ménages pauvres.

    Au Nigéria, malgré l’amélioration générale des conditions sécuritaires et un meilleur accès des humanitaires aux populations affectées par le conflit, ces dernières connaitront une insécurité alimentaire aiguë de niveau Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) dans le nord de Yobé et dans une grande partie de Borno, et d'Urgence (Phase 4 de l’IPC) dans le nord et l’est de Borno, et dans les zones périphériques de la forêt de Sambisa (sud Borno et Yobe). Les conditions de sécurité alimentaire pourraient être davantage pires dans les zones encore inaccessibles.

    Region Contact Information:
    Email: fews.west@fews.net


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    Source: Salesian Missions
    Country: Sierra Leone

    (MissionNewswire) On Sunday May 27, a devastating fire at a Don Bosco Fambul house in Freetown, Sierra Leone was caused by an electrical short-circuit. Everything in the Girls Shelter was lost in the fire and one of the 34 girls was slightly injured, with burns on her feet. The Salesian organization is one of Sierra Leone’s leading child-welfare organizations. The house affected is part of the organization’s Girls Shelter, which provides education and other services to girls and young women who have been victims of sexual assault and other abuses.

    “When the fire happened, the girls ran away, but they were not able to save anything. Everything in the house was lost including mattresses, clothes, kitchen items, computers, documents, television and other items,” says Father Jorge Crisafulli, director of Don Bosco Fambul. “The most important thing is that the girls are safe, and we will go on as always. I think it was a miracle of Mary Help of Christians that the girl that was injured was saved. We will again need the help of everyone to give them back a home.”

    Responding to the girls’ needs, Don Bosco Fambul has begun transforming its courtyards into a large multipurpose hall, while several rooms of the center have been prepared to accommodate mattresses for the girls to sleep. Fr. Crisafulli adds, “At the beginning it will be difficult, but these girls will not lack for anything, thanks to the solidarity of all.”

    Close to 200,000 young girls and older women were sexually assaulted during Sierra Leone’s decade-long civil war, according to UNICEF. And although the war has stopped, the sexual violence against women continues. Young women are at risk for sexual violence, trafficking and forced pregnancy, among other atrocities. Today, one third of girls are forced into marriage and often sexually assaulted by their husbands before their 15th birthday.

    The Girls Shelter is one of the nine programs run by Don Bosco Fambul. The program welcomes, houses and provides security and education to minors who have been abused in their families. It also helps support the victims in legal proceedings against abusers.

    Salesian missionaries, professional social workers and pastoral workers come together to provide crisis intervention and follow-up care for girls and young women. Girls that access the shelter services are also able to attend educational programs that are a part of the broader Don Bosco Fambul network of programs. These educational programs give young women the skills necessary to find and retain employment.

    With the participation and collaboration of the Salesian Mission Office in Madrid and the Spanish Salesian organization Jóvenes y Desarrollo, the Girls Shelter works to reintegrate these children and young girls into a family-like environment.

    ###

    Sources:

    ANS – Sierra Leone – Fire destroys house of Don Bosco Fambul program hosting 34 child victims of abuse

    UNICEF – Sierra Leone


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Togo, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, World, Yemen

    Tropical Cyclone Mekunu hits Yemen and Oman, while West Africa records mixed rainfall

    Africa Weather Hazards

    1. Insufficient rain since January has resulted in large moisture deficits and below-average vegetation conditions over portions of northwestern Angola.

    2. Poorly-distributed rain since late February has resulted in abnormal dryness across central and northeastern Ethiopia.

    3. A slow onset to seasonal rainfall across the southern Gulf of Guinea countries has led to strengthening moisture deficits throughout the region.

    4. Delays in seasonal rainfall across the southern Gulf of Guinea countries has led to strengthening moisture deficits throughout the region.

    5. Many consecutive weeks of heavy rainfall over western parts of Kenya, southern Somalia, coastal Tanzania, and Rwanda has led to severe flooding.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    West Africa can be divided into three agro-ecological zones or three different trade basins (West Basin, Central Basin and East Basin). Both important for understanding market behavior and dynamics.

    The three major agro-ecological zones are the Sahelian, the Sudanese and the Coastal zones where production and consumption can be easily classified. (1) In the Sahelian zone, millet is the principal cereal cultivated and consumed particularly in rural areas and increasingly, when accessible, in urban areas. Exceptions include Cape Verde where maize and rice are most important, Mauritania where sorghum and maize are staples, and Senegal with rice. The principal substitutes in the Sahel are sorghum, rice, and cassava flour (Gari), the latter two in times of shortage. (2) In the Sudanese zone (southern Chad, central Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, southern Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Serra Leone, Liberia) maize and sorghum constitute the principal cereals consumed by the majority of the population. They are followed by rice and tubers, particularly cassava and yam. (3) In the Coastal zone, with two rainy seasons, yam and maize constitute the most important food products. They are supplemented by cowpea, which is a significant source of protein.

    The three trade basins are known as the West, Central, and East basins. In addition to the north to south movement of particular commodities, certain cereals flow horizontally. (1) The West basin refers to Mauritania, Senegal, western Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and The Gambia where rice is most heavily traded. (2) The Central basin consists of Côte d'Ivoire, central and eastern Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Togo where maize is commonly traded. (3) The East basin refers to Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Benin where millet is traded most frequently. These three trade basins are shown on the map above.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes

    L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.

    Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2) Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Serra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3) Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.

    Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé. (2) Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.


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  • 06/01/18--12:43: World: CrisisWatch May 2018
  • Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, China - Taiwan Province, Colombia, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Western Sahara, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Global Overview MAY 2018

    May saw Cameroon’s Anglophone conflict escalate and new clashes between Somaliland and Somalia’s Puntland over disputed territory – in both cases, fighting could increase in June. Intercommunal violence rose in the Central African Republic and on both sides of the Mali-Niger border. In Burundi, President Nkurunziza pushed through changes to the constitution, entrenching his increasingly authoritarian rule. In Yemen, both sides intensified their campaigns and the Saudi-led coalition’s offensive on Hodeida could mean more bloodshed in coming weeks. Israel killed over 60 Palestinian protesters in one day, and Israel-Iran tensions climbed in Syria. President Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Iran nuclear deal could ramp up confrontation between the U.S. and Iran or their respective allies. Fighting intensified in Afghanistan, while Indonesia faced ISIS-linked terror attacks. In North East Asia, China and Japan established a crisis management hotline, tensions flared over the Taiwan Strait, and a planned summit between Trump and Kim Jong-un in June could advance denuclearisation of the Korean peninsula.


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    Source: Institute of Development Studies
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    Ebola Response Anthropology Platform

    Key points

    1. Caring is human, and intensely practical. Yet scientific discussions concerning the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic frequently portray caring practices, including burial, as irrational or immutable traditions.

    2. Rumours, resistance or continued at-risk practices are more helpfully interpreted as evidence of genuine concerns with the quality of the response as implemented on the ground, or a pointer to the irrelevance of the response to people’s most pressing health or livelihood concerns

    3. Current fears and uncertainty are influenced by historical experiences of external predation (slave traders, colonial regimes, recent warlordism). There is potential for people in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone to mistrust the motives of anyone outside their communities. This risk needs to be taken seriously and explicitly addressed at all stages of the design, implementation and oversight of research and infection control

    While this briefing note identifies arenas of particular significance with regard to burial practices and clinical sampling, such practices and perceptions are not standardised and are likely to change as social responses to EVD evolve. Mechanisms therefore need to be put in place to identify and respond flexibly to varied and shifting local concerns.

    Read the full report on IDS.


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    Source: UN Office of the SRSG for Children and Armed Conflict
    Country: Central African Republic, Iraq, Myanmar, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, World

    Wednesday, 6 June 2018

    Remarks by Ms. Virginia Gamba, SRSG-CAAC

    Please check against delivery

    Excellencies, dear colleagues, and welcome to our guest Kabba Williams,

    We are holding this meeting to explore how reintegration programs contribute to the well-being of children coming out of armed groups and forces, and to hear more about their impact on their communities. Reintegration is an important step both in protection and prevention. By helping these children, we also help ensure they do not return to an armed existence and we help break the cycle of violence that is all too common in conflict situation.

    As you know, I am just back from Myanmar. There I discussed this issue with our colleagues at UNICEF, who—despite intense challenges in other parts of the country—are doing an amazing job with the children being released by the Tatmadaw army. A large part of my engagement was advocating with the Government to finalize implementation of the Joint Action Plan to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children by the national army. Since 2012, over 800 children and young adults recruited as children have been released from the Tatmadaw. In accordance with the Action Plan, they received reintegration services provided by UNICEF, ILO and NGO partners. They have been provided with education and vocational training to find a place in a society where poverty has been an important driving factor for underage recruitment.

    In Myanmar, there are currently 7 non-state parties to conflict listed by the Secretary-General for recruitment and use of children. Boys and girls who escape or are released from these armed groups face an uncertain future, with little or no opportunities to benefit from services to rebuild their lives.

    Unfortunately, the challenges faced by the children of Myanmar are not unique. In every country on my agenda, we know of missed opportunities – due to lack of resources, capacity, or access – to help the most vulnerable recover from the trauma of war. These are also missed opportunities to prevent them from falling back into violence.

    We all agree on the importance of reintegration, but, in a world faced with multiple and complex crises, we still struggle to find adequate resources for the short- and long-term support of children recovering from the trauma of war.

    The mere fact that today’s event is co-sponsored by so many Member States speaks volumes about our common desire to change this situation.

    In a few minutes, you will hear Kabba Williams talk about his personal experience with reintegration programs in Sierra Leone. I know he will speak more eloquently than any of us could about the importance of providing education and vocational training to learn the skills needed to adapt to civilian life.

    I would like to set the stage for him by highlighting other guiding principles for our action.

    First and foremost, the best interest of the child must be at the heart of any program established for boys and girls. Working with communities is also key, to overcome stigma and to help children reunite with their families. The provision of physical and mental health support to overcome the long-term effects of war is the cornerstone of these efforts.

    The specific needs of girls cannot be overlooked. Too often, they are hidden victims of conflict who suffer stigma, rejection by their families and communities, in addition to psychological and physical consequences of sexual violence and other abuse. Equally, boys may need specialized programs—so our call is for gender-sensitive programming to tailor assistance most appropriately to meet the needs of the children.

    Allow me to speak about solutions.

    Conflict has evolved—so it is time to reconceptualize reintegration and its role in preventing future conflict. I strongly believe that reintegration support should be fundamental to emergency, recovery and peacebuilding efforts. It should also be part of our work to prevent conflict. Currently, despite the best efforts of UNICEF, national authorities, NGOs and others, it is often a very small part in overall recovery efforts, and not at the core of restabilizing and rebuilding societies torn apart by war. One recent study by the Clingendael Institute of the Netherlands demonstrated that in the DDR triad, Demobilization and Disarmament received massively more funding than Reintegration. For children, this has particularly dire consequences.

    We are all looking towards 2030 and how we can coalesce support around 16 Sustainable Development Goals. The theme of children and their well-being is at the center of many of them. By taking a harder look at the importance of reintegration programs in conflict and post-conflict settings, we will better understand how paying attention to this small but strategic piece of the puzzle will help us reach those Goals. An important element that I will be focusing on in the coming months and years is that of treating children involved as agents of change—Kabba here personifies that ethos and has an inspiring story to tell.

    But the reality remains: year in, year out, thousands of boys and girls need support for reintegration in places like the Central African Republic, Somalia, South Sudan, Iraq, and many other challenging environments.

    Providing adequate, meaningful and long-term services is a huge task. With resources currently available, this is sometimes a mission impossible. Most importantly, reintegration and rehabilitation efforts must be sustainable through time and cannot depend on just international efforts. Capacity building and resources for national sustainable reintegration and rehabilitation efforts must also be supported sooner rather than later.

    Excellencies, colleagues,

    Together, we can change that.

    To address this problem, my office is working on a collaborative project to support reintegration work in the field and establish a long-term, multi-year funding mechanism for the reintegration of children. This will include a specific focus on girls, and enhance existing work in psychosocial and education programming, as well as vocational training. This Global Reintegration Fund for Children is a mechanism that our colleagues at the UN could tap into, but its funding that would be also available for reintegration work by Member States recovery from conflict, NGOs and regional organizations.

    We are working with the World Bank to set up a fund that will be available to support existing programming solutions on reintegration, as well as provide space to explore new innovations that can be accessible to all sectors engaged in this endeavor from UN agencies to national reintegration offices, from NGOs to regional organizations. During the initial 5 years, pilot programs will be identified and run in 2-3 countries on the CAAC agenda. The idea is to use best practices knowledge to create new elements for these programs to meet the needs of children in today’s conflicts and to evaluate their impact based on a) sustainability and ownership; and b) non-voluntary re-recruitment for lack of options.

    For this, it is fundamental to establish proof of concept that programming for these children has to be longer than the current norm of six months. It is widely acknowledged that longer programs would be the most beneficial, but we require additional evidence and experience in this regard. With the enormous body of knowledge currently available from UNICEF, War Child and others, combined with new information gleaned from the pilot projects, including application at national level, we may be able to create a new paradigm that the minimum program should be 3 years or 5 years or longer, and then seek the funding to support them ensuring national ownership and sustainability at the end. This could revolutionize our approach and give child protection actors access to funding to transform the lives of these children. It can also impact on the ground by making reintegration options more desirable to those children still engaged and by providing the assistance needed to ensure no reincidence.

    Down the road, I would eventually like to establish a roster of child protection specialists ready to be deployed to support these programs when and where they are needed. Child protection officers and advisers are a crucial part of capacity both at emerging actions and in sustainable endeavors, they are often undervalued and under rated – this must stop.

    Excellencies, dear Colleagues,

    I thank our Member State co-sponsors, especially Poland, and welcome today’s discussions. I hope that we will come up with innovative solutions and commitments to use reintegration not only as a tool to rebuild lives, but also to rebuild communities, on a sustainable basis.

    Less children should return to a life of violence simply because there is no other option. All children used and abused by, in and for armed conflict should be given a real chance to create their own future.

    Thank you.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Les problèmes liés au pâturage et les répercussions du conflit sur le commerce de bétail contribuent à faire augmenter les souffrances liées à la faim chez les éleveurs ouest-africains

    7 juin 2018, Rome - Les approvisionnements alimentaires mondiaux restent globalement abondants mais les conflits continuent de fortement aggraver l'insécurité alimentaire, déjà considérée comme grave. Selon le rapport de la FAO sur les Perspectives de récoltes et la situation alimentaire, de plus en plus de pays ont besoin d'une aide alimentaire externe en raison de conditions climatiques défavorables.

    Cette liste compte maintenant 39 pays, soit deux pays de plus (le Sénégal et Cabo Verde) que dans le dernier rapport publié en mars.

    Après une saison de cultures médiocre, selon les estimations, 35 pour cent de la population cap-verdienne aura besoin d'une aide alimentaire, même si ces chiffres sont appelés à chuter de plus de moitié en début d'été avec le début des pluies saisonnières. De mauvaises conditions pastorales dans plusieurs régions au Nord du Sénégal devraient contribuer à faire augmenter le nombre de personnes ayant besoin d'aide. Ils seraient ainsi au nombre 750 000, selon le rapport trimestriel produit par le Système mondial d'information et d'alerte rapide de la FAO (SMIAR).

    La persistance des conflits et les chocs climatiques défavorables contribuent à l'aggravation de l'insécurité alimentaire. Ainsi, tous les pays sont restés sur la liste qui comprend 31 pays en Afrique et sept en Asie, sans oublier Haïti. Les guerres civiles et l'insécurité en Afrique et au Moyen-Orient ont contribué à faire grimper les niveaux de faim, poussant également des millions de personnes à se déplacer, faisant pression sur les pays voisins et empêchant les agriculteurs de cultiver leurs champs.

    Les pluies insuffisantes ont eu des répercussions sur les perspectives liées à la production céréalière en Amérique du Sud et en Afrique australe. D'après le rapport, les conditions climatiques défavorables représentent également un lourd fardeau pour les éleveurs en Afrique de l'Ouest.

    Les 39 pays ayant actuellement besoin d'aide alimentaire externe sont: l'Afghanistan, le Burkina Faso, le Burundi, le Cameroun, Cabo Verde, la République centrafricaine, le Tchad, le Congo, la République démocratique du Congo, Djibouti, l'Erythrée, l'Ethiopie, la Guinée, Haïti, l'Irak, le Kenya, la République populaire démocratique de Corée, le Lesotho, le Liberia, la Libye, Madagascar, le Malawi, le Mali, la Mauritanie, le Mozambique, la Birmanie, le Niger, le Nigéria, le Pakistan, le Sénégal, la Sierra Leone, la Somalie, le Soudan du Sud, le Soudan, le Swaziland, la Syrie, l'Ouganda, le Yémen et le Zimbabwe.

    L'Afrique touchée par des conflits et des pluies irrégulières

    Les dernières prévisions de la FAO pour la production mondiale de céréales en 2018 prévoient une baisse annuelle d'1,5 pour cent par rapport au niveau record atteint l'année précédente. Cette baisse est néanmoins plus importante dans certaines régions et notamment en Amérique du Sud et du Nord et en Afrique australe.

    Les conflits ont perturbé les activités agricoles dans plusieurs régions d'Afrique centrale, notamment en République centrafricaine et en République démocratique du Congo où l'accès à l'alimentation s'est vu encore plus compromis après un regain d'inflation. Les conflits au Nigéria et en Libye ont entraîné une baisse de la demande en viande et une forte chute des revenus de nombreux ménages pastoraux dans la région du Sahel, où les ressources en pâturage et en eau sont déjà limitées et où la saison creuse actuelle devrait durer plus longtemps que d'habitude.

    Pendant ce temps, de récentes pluies ont contribué à faire augmenter la production céréalière en Afrique de l'Est, après plusieurs saisons consécutives de récoltes diminuées par des vagues de sécheresse. Des pluies abondantes ont récemment provoqué des inondations en Somalie, en Ethiopie et au Kenya, poussant près de 800 000 personnes à se déplacer. Contrastant avec la tendance dans la sous-région, les prix des denrées alimentaires de base sont élevées et en hausse au Soudan et au Soudan du Sud, ayant pour effet de compromettre l'accès des locaux à l'alimentation et d'intensifier les risques liés à l'insécurité alimentaire.

    Sans aide humanitaire, le nombre de personnes en situation de grave insécurité alimentaire au Soudan du Sud devrait augmenter pour atteindre 7,1 millions de personnes lors du pic de la saison creuse qui va de juin à juillet.

    Des tendances positives pour les récoltes en Asie

    La récolte des céréales pour 2018 en Asie devrait rester proche du niveau record atteint l'année dernière - avec notamment la production totale de paddy qui devrait aussi atteindre un nouveau record - avec de meilleurs résultats dans de nombreux pays affectés la saison dernière par des conditions climatiques défavorables, dont le Bangladesh, le Vietnam, la République populaire démocratique de Corée, et dans une moindre mesure le Sri Lanka.

    La production de blé en Inde et au Pakistan devrait encore augmenter grâce à des conditions de culture favorables.

    Les conditions climatiques favorables ne seront pourtant pas suffisantes pour stimuler la production agricole dans les régions touchées par des conflits, alors que les conflits chroniques continuent d'empêcher les agriculteurs d'accéder aux champs et aux intrants agricoles en Irak et en Syrie, où les récoltes de cette année devraient donc de nouveau diminuer.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    $293.5 million
    UNHCR's financial requirements 2018
    Funded 26.0 million
    9% funded
    Funding gap 267.6 million


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan

    Mostly normal start of season with average or better, well distributed rainfall

    KEY MESSAGES

    • The ITF (Intertropical Front) continued its northward migration and it was located at or slightly north of its climatological position in late May except over western Mali and Senegal where it was slightly behind. This has resulted in average to above average seasonal rainfall totals over most of the Sahel (Figure 1 and Figure 2).

    • The end of the long season (March to July) rains in the bi-modal zone is nearing. Harvest is expected to be average to above average.

    • In the Sudanian-Guinean zone crops are in favorable conditions following good rains recorded during the second half of May.

    • A slight planting delay has been observed over Guinea and Sierra Leone but an early season start is likely over most of the central and eastern Sahel.

    UPDATE ON SEASONAL PROGRESS

    • The ITF’s northward migration continues and is positioned between 12.0 and 16.0 degrees of latitude north. In late May it is south of its climatological position only west of 7-8 degrees of longitude west with the lag reduced to less than a degree (Figure 3) compared to the couple of past dekads but it is at or slightly north of it east of this longitude.

    • Total rainfall amounts (Figure 1) from the first dekad of April to the third dekad of May were mostly average to above average (Figure 2) over the Bi-modal zone and most of the Sudanian-Guinean and Sahelian zones. However, the western part of the SudanianGuinean zone (Sierra Leone, Guinea, Guinea Bissau) and that of the Sahelian zone (Senegal, western Mali and Mauritania) have been affected by severe rainfall deficits.

    • Rainfall analysis indicates that moisture conditions have been generally adequate and favorable for the development of planted crops in:

    o The Bi-modal zone where the end of season is nearing, and the harvest is expected to be at least average

    o Most of the Sudanian-Guinean zone east of Guinea

    o The Sahelian zone and particularly the southern agricultural area east of Mali

    • Severe rainfall deficits (Figure 2) are not expected to have any significant effects on the season

    o In Guinea and Sierra Leone area the deficits resulted in slight sowing/planting delays. However, since relief has already come and given the length of the growing period and the relatively large seasonal amount of rainfall the area receives, the observed delays are not expected to affect crops development.

    o Also, no significant effects of the severe deficits over the few areas in the northern agro-pastoral part of the Sahelian zone (the region of Diffa in Niger, parts of Kanem region and Ouaddai, Wadi Firra and Batha Est regions in Chad) are expected on the agricultural and pastoral conditions because based on the crop calendar the season is yet to start.

    • According to the short and medium term forecasts from NOAA/CPC, rainfall is expected to continue expanding northward normally and no dry spell of any significance is expected within the next two weeks. outcome over the affected areas:


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Panama, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Togo, Turkmenistan, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, World, Yemen

    West Africa remains dry, while heavy rain is forecast over Kenya

    Africa Weather Hazards

    1. Poorly-distributed rain since late February has resulted in abnormal dryness across central and northeastern Ethiopia.

    2. A slow onset to seasonal rainfall across the southern Gulf of Guinea countries has led to strengthening moisture deficits throughout the region.

    3. Delays in seasonal rainfall across the southern Gulf of Guinea countries has led to strengthening moisture deficits throughout the region.

    4. Many consecutive weeks of heavy rainfall over western parts of Kenya, southern Somalia, coastal Tanzania and Rwanda has led to severe flooding.


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    Source: UN Development Programme
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Bashiru Brima, 21, is not your regular tailor. Living in the slum community of Cockle Bay, in Sierra Leone's capital city, he has been fashioning bags, mats and hats out of plastic refuse, while educating his fellow villagers to reclaim waste rather than let it pile up.

    “I learnt a lot. If we continue, the country will be clean. And this could be my own career.” Plastic waste is a major problem in the slums bordering Freetown, Sierra Leone’s capital city. Water sachets (commonly used as drinking containers in the country), empty bottles and jerry cans litter the streets and clog up drains, causing flooding in disaster-prone areas.

    Sierra Leone is among the top most vulnerable countries to climate change, and with an average rainfall of 3,600 litres (the equivalent of about 18 bathtubs) per square metre per year, flooding affects the country on a recurrent basis.

    The devastating flash flooding and landslide that killed thousands in Freetown in August 2017 illustrates how the accumulation of plastics in drainage systems, compounded by poor city planning, exacerbates the problem. Last year’s flooding displaced 5,000 slum dwellers in Freetown alone and caused significant financial losses.

    Plastic waste also poses public health issues, as blocked drainage causes water to stagnate and mosquitoes to breed in a region where malaria is endemic. In times of floods, water contaminated by mud and waste is washed into open drinking water wells and can lead to disease.
    There is no waste transfer center in Freetown, nowhere to sort garbage and separate what can be used for compost or recycling.

    It costs 2,000 Leones to dispose of a rice bag of garbage, says UNDP’s Thorsten Kallnischkies, Geologist and Waste Management Expert.

    As much as 80 % of Freetown’s waste could be recycled or used as compost.

    Kallnischkies, who has worked on almost 200 dumpsites around the world, says recycling and removing garbage from the cities' overflowing drains saves people's money, while also tackling youth unemployment.

    With a 400,000 $ budget, UNDP Sierra Leone launched a skills training on waste recycling for 150 youths (120 women and 30 men) in 8 slum communities around Freetown, with the aim to empower them financially and ultimately allow them to afford decent housing out of the slums.

    The project works with local women’s organizations, providing funds to mobilize the communities, establishing waste management committees, and equipping participants with cleanup tools and storage for raw materials. With UNDP support, the associations also develop strategies with plastic producing companies for safe disposal.

    Around 28 women and youth were trained on how to weave plastic waste to produce bags, purses and other items. Ester Kamara says she is looking forward to launch her own shop soon:

    “It’s helped us so much – we had been left out and were not considered, now I have my own resources”

    “We are going to continue – non stop. With my own shop, not just for me, for my community.”

    Aged 27, Kelfala Sopha from the Oloshoro slum says: “For [a] youth who had no jobs, now I can be proud of myself.” “We are solving environmental challenges in our communities, and this helps us get income – I will continue weaving, I want to be an entrepreneur.”

    “The project was announced in my community, and I volunteered to be part of it,” says Mariama Conteh, from Funkia. “My perception of plastic has changed – it’s not waste anymore, it’s useful.”

    Some 20 other youth were trained on plastic tile production. Around 15kg of plastic refuse, melted and mixed with 100kg of sand, sawdust and groundnut shavings, can produce 20 decorative floor tiles.

    Fatu Komora produces bio-charcoal briquettes from organic waste, and chairs the waste management committee in Culvert: “I brought this group together, and I don’t want to want my effort to go in vain. I want to see my community clean.”

    These innovative practices integrate environment management with livelihoods support and ensure the sustainability of the project. The pilot phase in vulnerable communities of Freetown paves the way for a scale-up throughout the country, and will provide critical lessons on which UNDP can build to accelerate post-Ebola economic recovery, develop resilience and reduce disaster risks.


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    Source: African Development Bank, UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, GFDRR, African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States
    Country: Cabo Verde, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania

    On 15 May 2018, more than 60 participants attended a focus event on the Africa Disaster Risk Financing (ADRF) Initiative, which took place in the margins of the 14-18 May Understanding Risk Forum in Mexico City. Among the participants were 40 delegates from 14 Sub-Saharan African governments (Cabo Verde, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Uganda). In addition, there were representatives from African Regional Economic Communities, including from the Economic Community of Central African States, the Economic Community of West African States, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and the Southern African Development Community, as well as representatives from the African Development Bank, the African Union and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This event was the largest such gathering of African practitioners to date, confirming the impact the ADRF Initiative has already had in building capacity among governments in Sub-Saharan Africa on Disaster Risk Financing (DRF).

    The core objective of the event was to bring together government officials and practitioners involved in the ADRF Initiative, and to enable them to share experiences, knowledge and lessons learned on activities implemented in the realm of the Initiative. The event focused on the themes of risk information within the Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and DRF agendas.

    As one of the principal areas of activities developed under the ADRF Initiative, the importance of data gathering and analysis was brought forward by many participants, including by Madagascar following its experience with Cyclone Enawo in 2017, and by East African countries that experience recurrent droughts. This topic is crucial to better understand the risks that countries face, which geographic areas are prone to disasters, and how analysis can be improved and speeded up in case of a disaster for a better coordinated response. In addition to building awareness of disaster and climate risks, risk information data is used for multiple concrete purposes, such as helping countries to assess urban risks, conducting specific sector analysis for safer infrastructure, and conducting rapid assessments following a disaster. Participants widely agreed that risk information is a fundamental prerequisite for developing informed DRF strategies, and that it can feed into governments’ decisions for the development of contingent mechanisms and other DRM decisions. Delegates from various Sub-Saharan countries such as Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar highlighted that ownership of the data collection and management is key, and insisted that building governments’ capacity was essential in this matter.

    Social safety net programs capable of scaling up during disaster shocks have proven to be effective in reaching the most vulnerable people in times of crisis. During the 2015 drought, Kenya’s cash transfer program, the Hunger Safety Net Program, provided support to more than 100,000 households in a period of two weeks. The rapid and inclusive response required an operational and flexible safety net system, in addition to coordinated government structures both at the national and local levels. The rapid cash transfers to vulnerable households impacted by the drought were possible in Kenya thanks to the use of satellite data to trigger the scale up of the program, clear and pre-determined rules for when to trigger a response, the pre-registration of all households in the covered counties, and the provision of bank accounts to all potential beneficiaries. In Ethiopia, the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) is also expanded to respond to disaster shocks. The scale up of the PSNP is supported by an early warning system and incorporates innovative features to automatically scale up social protection and enroll additional beneficiaries when the country experiences a food crisis. A delegate from Uganda also presented the Northern Uganda Social Action Fund (NUSAF) 3, which provides effective income support to build the resilience of about 700,000 poor and vulnerable householdsin Uganda, through strengthening institutions and the accountability of public service delivery. The NUSAF 3 project includes a DRF component, which enables the safety net to rapidly expand financial assistance to vulnerable households in the event of drought in Karamoja, the poorest region of the country. To date, the DRF component has reached over 50,000 of the poorest households (c. 250,000 people) in Uganda, providing them with income during the El Niño drought of 2016 and 2017. The audience was also able to hear from several other Sub-Saharan African countries that benefitted from technical assistance to develop shock responsive safety nets from the ADRF Initiative, such as Lesotho and Malawi.

    The ADRF Initiative has as its key objective to contribute to the development of DRF strategies.
    Participants shared their experiences, which sparked lively discussions on the steps needed to set-up DRF instruments and mechanisms, including the need for multi-sectoral coordination, or the way in which funds are mobilized to resolve emergency situations in the aftermath of a disaster. A delegate from Mozambique shared how the country activated an Immediate Response Mechanism in 2016, established a DRM Fund in July 2017 to finance disaster preparedness, response, recovery and reconstruction, and recently started discussions on sovereign insurance. As one of Sub-Saharan Africa’s most advanced countries on the matter and the first to have a DRF strategy in place, a delegate from Kenya highlighted the government’s instruments to strengthen financial preparedness to natural catastrophes. This includes contingent financing and the proposed Catastrophe Deferred Draw-Down Option (Cat DDO) instrument which will be presented for the World Bank’s approval in June 2018. Such examples and the ensuing discussions reiterated the importance of developing DRF strategies and of starting ex ante preparations, which help manage the financial pressure on governments following a disaster and enable them to swiftly start the recovery process.

    It was clear from the interactions between African countries during the ADRF event that how the DRF agenda evolves in each country is very different, driven by the needs of the government, the context and the political support for the agenda. It was also clear that capacity development in the area of DRF in SubSaharan Africa is an on-going process which will require committed engagement from development partners over the years to come. Countries now wishing to engage on this topic can learn from, and indeed leapfrog the initial success of others which have been implemented through the support of the ADRF Initiative, showing that further progress is expected. To this end, the ADRF event was another reminder of the importance of knowledge-sharing activities. As trailblazers for the DRF agenda in their respective countries, participants were able to reflect, take stock and take away important messages and good practices to be shared and disseminated at home.

    The ADRF Initiative is one of five Result Areas of the European Union (EU) - Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) cooperation program Building Disaster Resilience in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is implemented by several partners, including the African Development Bank (AfDB), African Union Commission (AUC), the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) and the World Bank (WB)-managed Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). The Program’s overall objective is to strengthen the resilience of Sub-Saharan African regions, countries and communities to the impacts of natural disasters, including the potential impact of climate change, to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development. The ADRF Initiative, launched in 2015 and implemented by GFDRR and the World Bank, supports the development of risk financing strategies at regional, national and local levels to help African countries make informed decisions to improve post-disaster financial response capacity in order to mitigate the socio-economic, fiscal and financial impacts of disasters.


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    Source: Armed Conflict Location and Events Dataset
    Country: Algeria, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Togo, Tunisia, Zimbabwe

    Key developments in Africa on the week of June 3rd include the fragile situation in Ethiopia, where political and economic reforms are endangered by ethnic violence; the heavy campaign led by Al Shabaab during the Ramadan month in Somalia; the continued violence in CAR’s Bambari area and in Mozambique’s Cabo Delgado region; and other relevant events across the continent.

    In Ethiopia, two months after having been sworn in, Prime Minister Ahmed continues to unveil key political, security and economic reforms to reposition the country onto a positive development trajectory. The lifting of the state of emergency two months earlier than planned on June 5th –and the subsequent replacement of the heads of the air and armed forces –were seen as key steps in this direction. So was the dramatic shift in the government’s stance towards implementing the 2000 Algiers peace agreement with Eritrea and the Ethiopian Eritrean Boundary Commission decision, on the grounds that neither country was benefitting from the stalemate. Yet, the persisting ethnic tensions throughout the country endanger these gains at the policy level. Violence continues to be reported between the Liyu police and the Oromo communities in the Oromia and Somali regions for instance, while clashes have also been reported between other groups: the Guji and Gedeo communities in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region (SNNPR); the Oromo and Gedeo communities along their common border; the Oromo and Amhara groups in Oromia; and the Tigray and Afar groups in the Afar region.

    In Somalia, Al Shabaab stepped up its military campaign during the Ramadan month. The militants attacked several AMISOM bases (Qoryooley, Shalaambood, Amabareson and Baraawe) in Shabeellaha Hoose region on June 2nd and 5th, and overran a police post around Dharkenley, Banaadir region on June 4th and a military base in Daynuunay, Bay on June 7th. Al Shabaab also briefly captured the town of Ceel Waak in Gedo region on June 5th, forcing local forces to flee for safety in Kenya. And on June 8th, the group launched a mortar attack on a joint US-AMISOM patrol in Jamaame in Jubbada Hoose region, leaving one American soldier killed and thus causing heavy notice in the western press. Counterinsurgency operations caused several casualties on Al Shabaab’s side as well. The group suffered particularly high fatalities in the Bari region as the military forces of Puntland and US launched operations against the group in the Maraja valley in Bossaso from June 2nd.

    In the Central African Republic (CAR), elements of the Union for Peace (UPC) and Anti-Balaka have been increasingly violent in the Bambari area of Ouaka prefecture in 2018, prompting large-scale counter-operations by the MINUSCA. On May 31st, MINUSCA struck the UPC positions in Bambari, reportedly killing 70 and forcing the militants further south, towards Kouango. The following week in Bambari was marked by a “dead city” day proclaimed by economic actors in support of the UPC and by clashes between the UPC and Anti-Balaka forces as the UPC attempted to regain grounds in Bambari.

    In Mozambique, violence by Islamist insurgent cells commonly referred to as Ahlu Sunna Wal Jamaa continues to spread in Cabo Delgado region. Among the nearly 70 fatalities reported since the group started its operations in October 2017, 30 occurred over the first week of June only. Battles were reported in Palma district following the militants’ beheading of 10 civilians in the district on May 31st. Heavy fatalities were also reported from further civilian targeting by the militants last week in Mucojo and Namaluco in Macomia district. In parallel, the group was reported to be conducting recruitment drives in Nampula, luring young people into their ranks under the promise of jobs. Mozambique is strengthening its partnerships with powers in the region to fight Islamic fundamentalism, most recently gaining the support of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Relevant political developments and protests marked many other areas of the continent. In Burundi for instance, president Nkurunziza announced that he would not run for another presidential term, assuaging fears that he would take advantage of the recent changes to the constitution. The move came a few days after he called for nationwide protests against the “false and inflammatory” statements made by the French government and the UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the situation in Burundi. It seems unlikely that this move was prompted by self-reflection or opposition strength, suggesting that intra-CNDD-FDD politics may be a paramount concern.

    In Sierra Leone, political targeting continues nearly two months after the presidential vote. At least two members of the opposition All People’s Congress (APC) were beaten and murdered in Freetown end May by “thugs” reportedly associated to the ruling Sierra Leone People’s Party (SLPP). In Zimbabwe, disorder around primary elections continues, shifting now to the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (Tsvangirai Faction) primaries. In Togo, opposition parties resumed their demonstrations in Lome to call for a return to the old Constitution of 1992, which would limit the president’s maximum term limit to five years, after a month of calm during the negotiations. Police and government repression were instrumental in hindering the demonstrations. In Algeria and Tunisia, protests spread to denounce the unjust treatment of Berber civilians and the socio-economic conditions driving people to migrate across the Mediterranean, respectively. Finally, violent service-delivery protests, particularly over housing, continue to be a dominant feature of the political violence landscape in South Africa. These protests are often located in informal urban settlements (demanding more formalised housing) as well as more developed settlements which board these informal settlements (critical of the increase in informal neighboring settlements).They have particularly affected areas in Western Cape.


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    Source: UN Office for West Africa and the Sahel
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    This sixth issue of UNOWAS Magazine is a special edition devoted to the regional colloquium on “Challenges and prospects of political reforms in West Africa in 2015-2017,” which was organized by UNOWAS in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, from 26 to 27 March 2018.

    Political reforms is an important theme, which concerns all sub-regional countries. The ongoing political reforms in the region made it pertinent for UNOWAS to organize a platform, where various experts could share their analyses and proposals with an aim to assist the governments and all political actors involved in successfully implementing their respective political reform processes.

    The objectives of the two-day colloquium were to: identify and analyze the main reasons which led many West African countries to initiate political reforms from 2015 to 2017; highlight mechanisms and processes, which led to the success or failure of political reforms; consider the background history of and changes in the relevant provisions, the main political aspects, similarities and differences between the various countries concerned; and identifying the scope, challenges, and prospects of political reforms in the sub-region.

    To achieve its objectives, the Abidjan colloquium was structured around three opening papers and eighteen thematic papers divided into six sections. Opening papers addressed the following themes: “Generation and types of political reforms in West Africa”, “Political reforms and governance”, and “ECOWAS instruments for building peace and promoting democracy and good governance in West Africa.” As for thematic conferences, they addressed two key themes - Theme 1: “Context, mechanisms, and causes of political reforms» and Theme 2: “Content, implementation, and impacts of political reforms”.

    After reviewing the reform processes initiated in West Africa in 2015-2017, recommendations were made for more legitimate and more relevant future political reforms in the sub-region. The recommendations included the establishment of a sub-regional platform on political reforms and good governance.

    The sub-regional colloquium on «Challenges and prospects of political reforms in West Africa in 2015-2017” was attended by 72 participants, including: representatives of 15 out of 16 West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo); representatives of regional and international organizations (UNOWAS, ECOWAS, IDEA, OSIWA, UNOCA, UNDP); and representatives of civil society organizations, women’s and young people’s groups (Réseau Ouest Africain des jeunes Femmes Leaders-ROAJELF, Fondation Cléopatre d’Afrique, Je m’engage, Muslim Student’s Society of Nigeria).

    We are hoping that this special edition will make you “relive the colloquium and its debates” and allow you to understand the ongoing political reform processes, including how best to improve governance in the sub-region.


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    Source: UN Office for West Africa and the Sahel
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Cette sixième édition d’UNOWAS Magazine que vous tenez entre les mains est une édition spéciale consacrée entièrement au colloque régional sur « Les enjeux et perspectives des réformes politiques en Afrique de l’Ouest en 2015-2017 » qui a été organisé par le Bureau des Nations Unies pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest et le Sahel (UNOWAS) les 26 et 27 mars derniers à Abidjan, en Côte d’Ivoire.

    En effet, les réformes politiques constituent un sujet majeur qui concerne tous les pays de la sous-région. Il était légitime, voire nécessaire pour UNOWAS d’organiser un tel colloque pour permettre à divers experts d’apporter leurs analyses et propositions à travers un programme ambitieux dont l’objectif était d’aider les gouvernements ainsi que tous les acteurs politiques à réussir la mise en œuvre de leurs processus de réformes politiques respectifs.

    Le colloque de deux jours, visait à relever et à analyser les raisons fondamentales qui ont conduit, entre 2015 et 2017, plusieurs pays de l’Afrique de l’Ouest à initier des réformes politiques ; à faire ressortir les mécanismes et dynamiques qui sont à la base de l’aboutissement, du report ou de l’échec des réformes politiques ; à examiner l’historique et l’évolution des dispositions en cause, les principaux aspects politiques, les similarités et les divergences entre les différents pays concernés; et à dégager la portée, les enjeux et les perspectives des réformes politiques dans la sous-région.

    Pour atteindre ses objectifs, le colloque d’Abidjan a été articulé autour de trois communications inaugurales et dix-huit communications thématiques réparties en six sections. Les communications inaugurales ont porté sur les thèmes suivants : « Génération et types de réformes politiques en Afrique de l’Ouest », « Réformes politiques et gouvernance », et « Instruments de la CEDEAO pour l’édification de la paix et la promotion de la démocratie et la bonne gouvernance en Afrique de l’Ouest ». Quant aux communications thématiques, elles ont porté sur deux thèmes centraux à savoir : « Contexte, mécanismes et causes des réformes politiques » et «Contenu, mise en place et impacts es réformes politiques ».

    Après avoir passé en revue les processus de réformes engagés en Afrique de l’Ouest entre 2015-2017, pour en appréhender les forces et faiblesses, les participants ont formulé des recommandations pour des réformes politiques plus légitimes et plus pertinentes dans la sous-région, notamment la création d’une plateforme sous régionale sur les réformes politiques et la bonne gouvernance.

    Confirmant l’importance de ce colloque, 72 participants ont répondu présents dont les représentants de 15 des 16 pays de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (Bénin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambie, Ghana, Guinée, Guinée Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritanie, Niger, Nigéria, Sénégal, Sierra Leone et Togo) ; les représentants d’organisations régionales, internationales (UNOWAS, CEDEAO, IDEA, OSIWA, UNOCA, UNDP) ; et les représentants de la société civile, de groupes de femmes et de jeunes (Réseau Ouest Africain des jeunes Femmes Leaders-ROAJELF, Fondation Cléopâtre d’Afrique, Je m’engage, Muslim Student’s Society of Nigeria).

    Nous espérons que le contenu de cette édition spéciale, vous permettra de « revivre le colloque et ses débats », et de mieux saisir l’importance et la nécessité des processus des réformes politiques, pour mieux renforcer la gouvernance dans la sous-région.


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