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ReliefWeb - Updates on Sierra Leone

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    Source: UN Development Programme
    Country: Sierra Leone

    A review of laws and policies in Sierra Leone identified key areas for reform in creating a more effective HIV response.

    Findings of the Legal Environment Assessment for HIV in Sierra Leone, conducted by the Sierra Leone National HIV/AIDS Secretariat and with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), were examined by 80 stakeholders at a two-day validation workshop from 11-12 December 2017.

    The assessment is a follow up to commitments by Member States at the 2011 Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS, as well as the recommendations of the Global Commission on HIV and the Law that urged governments to promote laws and policies grounded in evidence and human rights in order to turn the tide against HIV.

    “Punitive laws and discriminatory practices can undermine progress against HIV,” said Ghulam Sherani, Team Leader for Inclusive Growth, UNDP. It is crucial to conduct these assessments to reveal specifically which laws and policies support eradicating HIV in Sierra Leone, and to identify gaps in the laws and policies that require reform to ensure prevention and control of HIV and AIDS.”

    The report recommends strengthening the legal environment in a number of areas, to promote a more effective national HIV response, and to ensure this is achieved in accordance with the National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS 2016-20. Areas targeted for reform include the legislative branch of the government, delegated authority and the existing law.

    During the workshop, participants discussed examples of traditions, cultural sensitivity and stigmatization that are persistent impediments in the HIV response.

    The second day of the workshop featured contributions from representatives of key population communities. They informed the workshop of the challenges they face in their daily life.

    The study found that in the majority of cases, the legal infrastructure is aligned with best practices, but the laws and policies are not implemented as intended.

    “In order to protect Sierra Leoneans and fast track the national response in ending AIDS, it is essential that the Government of Sierra Leone examines its laws and policies that work against the national efforts in ending the epidemic,” said Mr. Abdul Rahman Sessay, Deputy Director of the Sierra Leone National HIV/AIDS Secretariat.

    The first of its kind in Sierra Leone, the Legal Environment Assessment is an activity of the Japan-funded project, "Strengthening Access to Health Care and Community-Led Development”, and conducted in partnership with the UNDP Regional Office, with funding from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Chile, Dominica, Haiti, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Madagascar, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sint Maarten (The Netherlands), Turks and Caicos Islands, World

    The United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) team is part of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the international emergency response system for sudden-onset emergencies. UNDAC was created in 1993. It is designed to help the United Nations and governments of disaster-affected countries during the first phase of a sudden-onset emergency. UNDAC, as a tool of OCHA, also assists in the coordination of incoming international relief at national level and/or at the site of the emergency.

    In 2018, the UNDAC team will celebrate its 25th year anniversary highlighting UNDAC’s invaluable role in sudden-onset emergencies over the course of its history. It’s the year to celebrate the contribution of all the members from all the regions, particularly national disaster management experts that are part of the UNDAC roster and who remain strongly committed and actively engaged in the UNDAC system.

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    Source: Street Child
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Charity Street Child releases report 6 months on from Sierra Leone Mudslides

    On Monday 14th August an estimated 1,000 people died when an entire mountainside collapsed in the capital of Sierra Leone. Huge boulders, dislodged by rain, left a two-mile trail of destruction – flattening everything in its path.

    Immediately after the disaster the international community kicked into gear. NGO Street Child was one of the first on the scene providing emergency food with support from the UK government. Street Child’s team of 70 national staff worked 12-hour days for over a month providing over 85,000 meals, water, clothing, blankets and trauma counselling to those who had lost everything.

    6 months on from the disaster and much of the international community have left. But there is still much to be done.

    Charity Street Child’s latest report shows that over half of families impacted by the mudslide still have no source of income. Following a survey of over 300 households, Street Child discovered that 44% of families affected by the flooding and mudslide have no current source of income – a drastic increase from the 5% of households were in this position prior to the mudslide.

    The survey showed an encouraging number of children in school, with 84% of children currently enrolled and attending school. However the survey indicated that sustaining this level in the long-term is unlikely. 41% of families surveyed were identified as either having children out of school or at risk of dropping out of school.

    Overall the study has provided much needed indication of the impact of the mudslide on families in the post-emergency context. It has demonstrated there is significant work to be done to help families rebuild their livelihoods in order to provide for their children and send them to school.

    Street Child specialises in supporting mothers to set up sustainable businesses so they can afford the cost of feeding and educating their children. In Freetown where, after losing everything, so many families face uncertain futures, this work is vital to giving them a brighter future.

    The UK government who supported Street Child’s emergency relief work in Freetown continue to do so by matching donations to Street Child’s Right to Learn appeal. Until 15th February the UK government will match all donations, pound for pound through UK Aid Match. Visit to find out more.

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    Source: World Food Programme, US Agency for International Development
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone

    Le programme « Zéro Faim » met l’accent sur l’importance de renforcer l’autonomisation économique et soutient l’Objectif de Développement Durable 2 qui vise à doubler les revenus et la productivité des petits producteurs. L’intérêt croissant porté sur les marchés résilients peut apporter des contributions importantes aux systèmes alimentaires durables et édifier la résilience. La participation aux systèmes de marché n’offre pas seulement la possibilité d’assurer ses moyens de subsistance, mais elle permet aussi de se prendre en charge, de préserver sa dignité, de créer du capital social et d’augmenter la confiance en soi. L’analyse de la sécurité alimentaire doit tenir compte des questions de violence et de discrimination basées sur le genre afin de fournir une assistance adaptée aux plus vulnérables.

    La politique de nutrition du PAM (2017-2021) réaffirme que l’égalité entre les sexes et l’autonomisation des femmes sont essentielles pour assurer une bonne nutrition et des moyens de subsistance durables et résilients fondés sur le respect des droits de l’homme et de la justice. L’analyse sexospécifique dans les programmes de nutrition est donc une composante fondamentale pour la réalisation des ODDs. L’initiative VAM Genre et Marchés du Bureau régional du PAM pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre vise à renforcer l’engagement, la responsabilité et les capacités du PAM et de ses partenaires en matière de sécurité alimentaire et d’analyse nutritionnelle tenant compte des sexospécificités, et ce, aux fins d’élaborer des interventions basées sur le marché qui favorisent l’autonomisation des femmes et des populations vulnérables. La série d’études régionales Genre et Marchés du VAM servira de base empirique et permettra de faire le lien avec l’ODD 5 dont le but est de réaliser l’égalité des sexes et l’autonomisation des femmes et des filles.

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    Source: World Food Programme, US Agency for International Development
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone

    The Zero Hunger Challenge emphasizes the importance of strengthening economic empowerment in support of the Sustainable Development Goal 2 to double small-scale producer incomes and productivity. The increasing focus on resilient markets can bring important contributions to sustainable food systems and build resilience. Participation in market systems is not only a means for people to secure their livelihood, but it also enables them to exercise agency, maintain dignity, build social capital and increase self-worth. Food security analysis must take into account questions of gender-based violence and discrimination in order to deliver well-tailored assistance to those most in need.

    WFP’s Nutrition Policy (2017-2021) reconfirms that gender equality and women’s empowerment are essential to achieve good nutrition and sustainable and resilient livelihoods, which are based on human rights and justice. This is why gender-sensitive analysis in nutrition programmes is a crucial contribution to achieving the SDGs. The VAM Gender & Markets Initiative of the WFP Regional Bureau for West and Central Africa seeks to strengthen WFP and partners’ commitment, accountability and capacities for gender-sensitive food security and nutrition analysis in order to design market-based interventions that empower women and vulnerable populations. The series of regional VAM Gender and Markets Studies is an effort to build the evidence base and establish a link to SDG 5 which seeks to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

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    Source: US Agency for International Development
    Country: Sierra Leone, United States of America

    Assistance also enhances nutrition, health and local economies: “We tell you thanks, the people of America. You have really tried for us; we pray that God blesses you.” February 2018—Wanday Bangura’s stall in a bustling market in the Bombali district of northern Sierra Leone is full of shoes, jewelry, scarves and other products displayed for sale. Her small enterprise is flourishing. “We have money to eat…and buy market items to sell. So we tell God thanks,” she explained.
    Bangura’s business was not always thriving.

    During the Ebola epidemic, which contributed to approximately 4,000 deaths in the country between 2014 and 2016, Sierra Leoneans faced significant restrictions on their movements and public gatherings, put in place to curb the spread of the disease.

    These restrictions hindered Bangura’s ability to bring her goods to market and sell them to customers in her shop. As a shopkeeper, she relied on contact with the public to generate income, and her business suffered greatly.

    Finally, to feed her family of seven, Bangura had to sell off or barter away her inventory.

    By the end of the outbreak, her supplies and resources were completely exhausted, and she had nothing left to invest in her shop. The epidemic was over, but Bangura faced a long road to recovery.
    However, support from the American people has helped Bangura and similarly struggling Sierra Leoneans pull themselves up and get back on their feet.

    In 2017, Bangura received three cash transfers through an emergency food security program funded by USAID’s Office of Food for Peace and implemented by ACDI/VOCA, a non-governmental organization (NGO). She also participated in the program’s household economics training, building her ability to manage her finances and prioritize expenses.

    The cash transfers not only allowed her to purchase the nutritious foods her family required, but also helped her respond to other needs, including kick-starting her livelihood and reestablishing her shop, which is now profitable and sustainable.

    Bangura is not alone. Between 2015 and 2017, emergency cash transfers delivered by five of USAID’s NGO partners in Sierra Leone reached approximately 360,000 vulnerable people. Many participants also benefited from a range of complementary activities, including education in nutrition and hygiene that enhanced dietary practices and health; the distribution of vouchers to purchase seeds that increased crop production and income generation; and the formation of village savings and loans associations that strengthened social bonds and allowed communities to grow their collective cash reserves.

    This Bangura is not alone. Between 2015 and 2017, emergency cash transfers delivered by five of USAID’s NGO partners in Sierra Leone reached approximately 360,000 vulnerable people. Many participants also benefited from a range of complementary activities, including education in nutrition and hygiene that enhanced dietary practices and health; the distribution of vouchers to purchase seeds that increased crop production and income generation; and the formation of village savings and loans associations that strengthened social bonds and allowed communities to grow their collective cash reserves.

    This flexible, market-based food assistance did much more than improve access to nutritious food. It also spurred the recovery of markets, livelihoods and communities in the region.
    Today, Bangura’s shop is prospering as the threat of Ebola wanes. But she has not forgotten that the American people were there to support vulnerable Sierra Leonean communities when they needed help. “We tell you thanks, the people of America,” she said. “You have really tried for us; we pray that God blesses you.”

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Côte d'Ivoire, France, Gambia, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Italy, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Spain, Togo, World

    Key Findings

    • A large majority of migrants are men (92%).

    • 7% of observed migrants at Flow Monitoring Points are minors.

    • Algeria, Mauritania, Burkina Faso and Niger are major transit points after Mali.

    • The majority of surveyed migrants indicated their intention to travel to Algeria and Libya, while 40% intended to travel to Europe, in particular Italy and Spain.

    • 80,406 migrants (14,636 incoming and 65,770 outgoing) were counted at Flow Monitoring Points, representing an average of 139 migrants per day.

    • Nationals from Guinea, Gambia, Senegal, and Côte d'Ivoire rank first among non-Malian migrants transiting through Mali.

    • The vast majority of identified migrants arrived in Mali in transit buses. However, migrants departing from Gao mainly travel in trucks, while those identified at other flow monitoring points primarily travel by bus.

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    Source: Institute for Security Studies
    Country: Liberia, Sierra Leone

    New governments in both countries could reverse their poor track by learning from local projects

    Neighbouring Liberia and Sierra Leone are undergoing post-conflict transitions. And in both countries, national elections are ushering in new administrations. In March, elections will be held in Sierra Leone, and in January, George Weah took over as Liberia’s president from Ellen Johnson Sirleaf.

    Not only was Johnson Sirleaf Africa’s first female president, but she recently received the Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership. Expectations that her time in office would deliver inclusive and real empowerment for women in Liberia were understandably high. But in Liberia and Sierra Leone, the reality is quite different.

    Both have made the right noises when it comes to empowering women, but Liberia and Sierra Leone feature among the 15 least gender-developed countries in the world, according to the United Nations Development Programme.

    Liberia and Sierra Leone feature among the 15 least gender-developed countries in the world

    The problem is not just a lack of adequate policies and laws, but – as is so often the case – poor implementation and the gap between national priorities and local realities. In both Liberia and Sierra Leone, national government can learn from local initiatives that are showing good results.

    In Liberia gender policy and an inheritance law have been adopted, and a Ministry of Gender and Women was established. These initiatives are geared towards providing free education for girls, and ensuring women have access to business opportunities and equal access to land.

    In Sierra Leone, the new constitution is more inclusive and addresses issues of equality. In 2007 a gender act was passed. Progress to eliminate barriers to women’s empowerment include three main laws: the registration of customary marriage and divorce; devolution of estate; and the domestic violence act.

    Both countries have also developed National Action Plans in line with their commitment to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, which calls for women to contribute to ensuring long-lasting peace. The plans are meant to provide a framework for empowering women that takes into account domestic needs and challenges. Liberia adopted its National Action Plan in 2009 and Sierra Leone in 2010.

    But instead of changing the underlying political, economic and social structures that disempower women, these National Action Plans focus on dealing with sexual and gender based violence. This limits the extent to which real gender equality can be achieved.

    New laws and removing barriers to participation haven't empowered women in Liberia and Sierra Leone

    In Liberia, where Johnson Sirleaf was president for over 10 years, less than 10% of people participating in politics are women. In Sierra Leone, which has a male president, the figure is just over 12%.

    The problem does not only lie only with political participation – women are discriminated against in education: literacy among women in these two countries is among the lowest in the world. Only 37.7% of adult females compared to 58.7% of adult males are educated in Sierra Leone and in Liberia, 32.8% of females compared to 62.4% males are literate.

    In Liberia women are actually worse off today than they were in 2003, especially when it comes to employment opportunities and access to justice. And in Sierra Leone, there has been an increase in violence against women since 2002.

    So removing legal barriers to women’s participation in society and developing new policies and plans have not ended discrimination in Liberia and Sierra Leone. What then needs to be done to empower women in a meaningful way?

    The change of administration in both countries is the ideal opportunity to revise and then properly implement policy.

    Liberia's peace huts and Sierra Leone's peace preservation projects have shown good results

    Both Sierra Leone and Liberia are poor countries with slow economic growth. Efforts to grow the economy must include gender-responsive budgeting. This should be done in consultation with civil society organisations to identify context-specific solutions. Indeed, the involvement of organisations working on women’s empowerment in national planning processes should be institutionalised.

    The Liberian experience shows that having women at the highest level of government does not necessarily change the lives of ordinary women for the better. In this respect, women with existing technical capacity should be identified and trained specifically to take up high-level, decision making roles. A strategy should also be developed and funded for long-term support to build the capacity of women’s networks to engage in political dialogue.

    The new administrations in both countries need to focus not just on getting the right laws and policies in place, but on implementing new and existing ones. A first step is harnessing the good lessons from their own communities, such as the peace huts in Liberia and the peace preservation projects in Sierra Leone.

    Both initiatives engage women actively and have brought lasting peace to their communities. The peace huts allowed women to raise concerns, like the need for better livelihoods, and the peace preservation projects gave women an active role in changing social attitudes, especially about their role in decision making in Sierra Leone.

    In both countries, these local projects gave women access to resources like seeds for agriculture or scholarships for young girls. These initiatives strengthened the voice of women which in turn can empower others.

    In Liberia and Sierra Leone most women empowerment initiatives happen at local level. Awareness raising activities, community dialogues and media strategies focusing on these achievements can produce visible, practical methods for redress at the national level.

    Meaningful change takes place at community level because it is driven by needs and experience. If these successes can be translated into policy and plans for the country as a whole, women’s empowerment is bound to become a reality in Sierra Leone and Liberia.

    Liezelle Kumalo, Researcher, Peace Operations and Peacebuilding, ISS Pretoria

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen, Zambia



    In the 17th round of DTM Libya data collection taking place in January and February 2018, IOM identified 704,142 migrants in Libya. Migrants were identified in 99 baladiyas and 551 muhallas and originating from up to 40 countries.

    In addition to those identified in urban and rural settings migrants in Libya were also recorded in detention centers. Based on DTM’s latest data, the number of migrants in Libya’s Detention Centers is 4,443 individuals (15/02/18)*.

    As displayed in the maps on page 6-7, out of the total number of migrants identified, 650,073 individuals (92%) originate from 31 different African countries, 53,987 individuals (8%) from Asian and Middle Eastern countries and a final group of up to 82 individuals did not disclose a country of origin.

    The top 5 nationalities identified were Nigerien, Egyptian, Chadian, Sudanese and Ghanaian, together these nationalities account for up to 66% of Libya’s migrant population.

    Out of the 650,073 individuals from Africa, 446,732 (69%) originate from Sub-Saharan countries and 183,226 individuals (31%) from North African countries. The majority of Sub-Saharan migrants (73%) were identified in Libya’s Western mantikas, 17% in the Southern mantikas and the remaining 10% in the Eastern mantikas.

    74% of the individuals originating from Asia and the Middle East were identified in the western region and 25% in the East. the remaining 1% were identified in the South.

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    Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
    Country: Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, World

    Multilateral peace operations are increasingly confronting a set of interrelated and mutually reinforcing security challenges that are relatively new to them, that do not respect borders, and that have causes and effects which cut right across the international security, peacebuilding and development agendas. Organized crime provides one of the most prominent examples of these ‘non-traditional’ security challenges.

    There are many different definitions of organized crime depending on the context, sector and organization. The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime defines an ‘organized criminal group’ as ‘a structured group of three or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences . . . in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit’. However, this definition is not unchallenged. The labelling of what is legal and illegal, or legitimate and illegitimate, is done by state actors, and as this is a normative decision, the definition privileges the state. Particularly in conflict settings in which state governance is weak, corrupt or contested, the binary choice of good versus bad is arbitrary and often does not reflect the views of the population. In fact, by labelling actors as organized criminal groups, potential partners in peace processes may be pushed towards becoming spoilers instead.

    The role of organized crime in armed conflict and its relationship with multilateral peace operations has clearly varied in different contexts. When organized crime has supported spoilers to peace processes, the distinction between crime and conflict is blurred. Its support may be in competition with the state in order to continue an insurgency, for example, the Taliban and Haqqani networks taxing the opium narco-economy in Afghanistan. It may also sustain warlords in creating their own proto-states as an alternative to a strong overall state, such as in Afghanistan and Somalia.

    In other contexts, organized crime may evade the presence of the state, settle in regions where the state is absent and exploit the void with its own armed groups to exploit natural resources. Countries such as the Central African Republic (CAR), Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Liberia and Sierra Leone have seen their natural resources plundered, including coltan, diamonds, gold and timber. In Haiti, for example, drug traders have also teamed up with gangs to benefit from the absence of the state.

    In another role, organized crime may be a partner of peace operations because it has gained access to or control over the host government. Some criminals may have continued their criminal activities within government, for example, in Kosovo, where addressing them is difficult as they are considered war heroes. In other cases, organized crime may have virtually captured the state, such as reportedly in Guinea-Bissau, and control the sovereign government of a country. In extreme cases, peace operations have inadvertently supported organized crime either by engaging in illicit trade or activities or by increasing the demand for such goods or activities.

    Thus, organized crime may have a predatory relationship with the state when it is in violent competition, but it may also coexist with the state in a parasitic or symbiotic relationship—depending on whether or not it is targeting state resources. The challenges of organized crime may, therefore, be of direct or indirect relevance to multilateral peace operations. Directly, it may behave as a spoiler or evade peace processes. Indirectly, it may decrease the effectiveness of peace operations, particularly long term, contributing to the continued fragility of countries and their peace processes in its role as partner.

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    Source: Independent Commission for Aid Impact
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, World

    The UK aid response to global health threats

    While health has been a major focus of UK aid for many years, the response to and lessons from the Ebola crisis stimulated a rapid scaling up of activity and spending to address global health threats.

    Between 2014 and 2016 the Ebola crisis killed more than 11,000 people. The outbreak led to a protracted humanitarian emergency in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, exposed weaknesses in epidemic preparedness and response, and highlighted failings within the World Health Organization (WHO) and across the international health emergency response system.

    The response to and lessons from the Ebola crisis prompted a rapid scaling up of activity and spending to address global health threats. ICAI has conducted a review into this scaling up of activity.

    The review found that the UK government responded rapidly to address weaknesses in the international response system exposed by the Ebola crisis, developing a coherent and evidence-based framework for addressing global health threats and establishing a portfolio of relevant and often pioneering programmes and influencing activities.

    The Stronger, Smarter, Swifter framework provided a strong foundation for a portfolio of aid programmes to help developing countries tackle disease outbreaks more effectively. However, the review recommends that the framework be developed into a global health strategy, published and communicated widely in order to encourage other donors and multilateral agencies to align their activities and spending with the UK’s efforts.

    The review found that the UK has been influential in encouraging WHO reform and securing global policy commitments to antimicrobial resistance. However, highlighted some areas of the UK’s influencing strategy that had less success, for example, in encouraging other donors to invest in the WHO Health Emergencies Programme.

    Having been quick to capture lessons from the Ebola crisis and build these into its Stronger, Smarter, Swifter strategic framework, this review found that the UK government has not followed through with sufficiently robust evaluation and knowledge dissemination practices.

    The review also highlighted the need for an increased focus on strengthening country health systems to improve their ability to respond epidemics and that there is a general need for improvement in cross-government collaboration and communication.


    As a result of this ICAI review, we made the following recommendations:

    • The UK government should build on the success of the Stronger, Smarter, Swifter framework by developing a refreshed global health security strategy with a clearer focus on strengthening country health systems, a broader set of research priorities and clearly defined mechanisms for collaboration both across departments and with external actors. The strategy should be published and communicated widely.

    • The Department of Health and DFID should strengthen and formalise cross-government partnership and coordination mechanisms for global health threats, broadening their membership where relevant. This should include regular cross-government simulations to rehearse how the UK government might coordinate and respond internationally to a future global health threats crisis similar to Ebola, and engage with other actors such as the WHO.

    • The government should ensure that DFID has sufficient capacity in place to coordinate UK global health security programmes and influencing activities in priority countries, including around the objective of strengthening national health systems.

    • DFID and the Department of Health should work together to prioritise learning on global health threats across government, overseeing the development of a broad evaluation and learning framework, regular reviews of what works (and represents good value for money) across global health security programmes, and a shared approach to the training and development of health advisors.

    Government Response

    The government publishes a response to all ICAI reviews. The government will publish a response in due course.

    International Development Committee

    There will be an International Development Committee hearing into this review in due course.

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    Source: Government of Sierra Leone, Action Contre la Faim France, Irish Aid
    Country: Sierra Leone

    The Directorate of Food and Nutrition of Sierra Leone’s Ministry of Health and Sanitation and Action Against Hunger Sierra Leone, with funding from Irish Aid, conducted the National Nutrition Survey 2017 in close collaboration and partnership with Sierra Leone Nutrition Technical Working Group.

    A nutrition and mortality assessment using SMART methodology was applied and the survey covered 15 statistical (14 districts plus 1) domains countrywide. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current nutrition status of the population, especially children 6-59 months old and women of reproductive age (15-49 years of age). The survey also looked at the major contextual factors contributing to undernutrition such as infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices; food security indicators; water, sanitation and hygiene indicators; and health situation in Sierra Leone.

    A total of 9069 children, aged 6‐59 months, were examined for anthropometry; 4550 children, aged 0-23 months, assessed for IYCF practices, including 1106 children, aged 0-5 months, assessed for exclusive breastfeeding practices. A total of 9,496 women were assessed for their nutrition status and dietary diversity. Household related data, such as food security and livelihoods, water, sanitation and hygiene indicators as well as access to health services were also collected in the 9469 households during the assessment.

    The national prevalence of Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) was 5.1% (95%CI: 4.6-5.6), Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) was 4.0% (95% CI: 3.6-4.5) and the Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) rate was 1.0% (95%CI: 0.8-1.3). Boys were more acutely malnourished than girls were (p<0.05), and younger children (aged 6-29 months) were more malnourished (p<0.05) than the older (aged 30-59 months) children.

    The national prevalence of stunting was 31.3% (95% CI: 30.0-32.6) translating to 293,736 stunted children (based on 2015 population census) with 21.3% (95% CI: 20.3-22.3) moderately stunted and 10.0% (95% CI: 9.2-10.7) severely stunted, with more boys than girls reportedly stunted (p<0.05). Although the levels of both wasting and stunting have shown an improving trend over the past 10 years, stunting rates remain high (>30%) indicating a persistent serious chronic malnutrition situation according to WHO Classification that needs to be addressed comprehensively.

    Moreover, 25,9% of the women surveyed were overweight. This occurrence of both under and over nutrition is an indication of the emerging double burden and complexity of malnutrition in the country.

    Water, sanitation and hygiene indicators reveal a lack of access to the resources and poor practices. 80% of the households surveyed do not have access to latrine or toilet and 28% do not have access to a protected source of drinking water. If 70% use soap while washing hands, only 30% of those wash their hands at least three critical times a day.

    The poor acute nutrition situation and serious chronic nutrition situation in the country is attributed to multiple and interrelated factors that call for continued integrated intervention efforts to address both immediate needs in addition to developing long-term strategies to enhance access to basic services; support to sustainable livelihood systems and social protection mechanisms.

    To learn more about the recommendations and the findings of the survey, please download the full report.

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    Source: World Bank
    Country: Sierra Leone

    WASHINGTON, February 22, 2018 — The World Bank today approved an International Development Association (IDA)* grant of $10 million to support Sierra Leone in its efforts to recover from severe landslides and floods in Freetown in August 2017. The landslide, comprising a mix of clay soil and boulders of up to 40 cubic meters, ripped through the city of Freetown with tremendous energy destroying everything in its path. Residents reported a large ‘tidal wave’ of material advancing down the river channel. The event had a massive human impact, with 1,141 declared dead or missing and over 6,000 people affected, and caused major destruction of infrastructure.

    The Freetown Emergency Recovery Project will finance rehabilitation of selected critical infrastructure in Freetown and strengthen government capacity for managing disaster risk. To prevent future landslides in the area, the project will implement slope remediation earth works prior to the next rainy season in May. It will also finance rehabilitation of roads, bridges, drainage, and water infrastructure. ‘Build back better’ principles will be used to ensure sustainability of these works to future disasters.

    After the disaster, a Damage and Loss Assessment—financed by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery--estimated that a total economic value of the effects of the landslides and floods of over $31 million and resilient recovery needs of over $82 million.

    “The Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment and the Damage and Loss Assessment that have just been completed are cutting edge technical reports that will help inform this project and other ongoing and pipeline World Bank projects, as well as the future development path of Freetown,” said Parminder Brar, World Bank Country Manager for Sierra Leone.

    To build the Government’s capacity for managing climate and disaster risk, this project will also finance activities to strengthen the country’s preparedness capacity, especially for improving its early warning systems. Further, to address challenges of waste management, which exacerbate flooding in Freetown, this project will support technical studies around solid waste management and drainage.

    “The Government has expressed strong commitment to the project, with several departments involved. In addition to infrastructure rehabilitation and reconstruction, the project intends to build the Government’s capacity to coordinate for improved disaster risk management,” said Robert Reid, World Bank Task Team Leader.

    • The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA), established in 1960, helps the world’s poorest countries by providing grants and low to zero-interest loans for projects and programs that boost economic growth, reduce poverty, and improve poor people’s lives. IDA is one of the largest sources of assistance for the world’s 75 poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa. Resources from IDA bring positive change to the 1.5 billion people who live in IDA countries. Since 1960, IDA has supported development work in 113 countries. Annual commitments have averaged about $18 billion over the last three years, with about 54 percent going to Africa.

    PRESS RELEASE NO: 2018/087/AFR


    Sierra Leone

    Moses A. Kargbo
    +232 76-345930


    Ekaterina Svirina
    +1 202 458-1042

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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Today Sierra Leone officially introduced injectable polio vaccine (or IPV) into its routine immunization programme to maximize protection against polio. IPV is now used in many countries around the world to prevent against the debilitating disease, and will now be available free of cost alongside the oral vaccine at clinics and health facilities across Sierra Leone.

    The new vaccine’s introduction is led by the Ministry of Health and Sanitation with support from the WHO Global Polio Eradication Initiative, UNICEF, Gavi the Vaccine Alliance and the vaccine manufacturers.

    “The only protection we have, the only way we can be sure of keeping our children safe from polio and the only way we can completely eradicate polio is by ensuring that every child, everywhere, gets their vaccines,” said Alexander Chimbaru, Officer in Charge of the World Health Organization Country Office in Sierra Leone. “Alongside the oral vaccine, IPV will provide children in Sierra Leone with the best possible protection against all polio diseases.”

    In 1988 when the WHO Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched, polio paralyzed approximately 10 children every 15 minutes in over 130 countries of the world. Since then, the collective global effort to end the disease in ever parts of the world has resulted to only 22 cases in just two countries in 2017, making it a historical low in the global polio eradication initiative.The last confirmed polio case in Sierra Leone was reported in 2010. Since then increased surveillance activities for the disease has been ongoing with support from WHO and other partners, alongside efforts to expand vaccination coverage across all of the country’s 14 districts.

    “As part of our effort as a Ministry to advance child health in Sierra Leone, there are currently eight childhood vaccines with twelve antigens in the National Immunization Programme which are helping to save the lives of our children against vaccine preventable diseases”, explained Madina Rahman, Deputy Minister of Health and Sanitation. “And today, we feel very proud to introduce the IPV for the first time as another critical lifesaving intervention, which was made possible with the unwavering support of our partners”, she added.

    Partners also impressed on the need for health workers to ensure effective storage of the vaccines, and for communities and partners to continue mobilizing all parents and caregivers to take their children to get their routine vaccinations on time, for protection against many different life-threatening and debilitating diseases.

    For Additional Information or to Request Interviews, Please contact: KEENAN, Laura

    GBORIE, Saffea Communications Officer Email: Tel: +232 76 77 78 78

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    Source: ECOWAS, African Union, United Nations, European Union
    Country: Sierra Leone

    The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the African Union (AU), the United Nations (UN), and the European Union (EU) are following closely and with much interest the progress towards Sierra Leone’s presidential, parliamentary and local council elections scheduled to take place on 7 March 2018.

    The four organizations welcome the efforts made by the National Electoral Commission for the preparation of the polls and also welcome the deployment of short- and long-term national and international observer missions.

    We also welcome the commitment expressed by Sierra Leonean stakeholders for the holding of democratic, transparent and credible polls, in line with national and international frameworks.

    We are concerned about recent incidents of election-related violence, and call on all political parties and their leaders to exercise restraint, desist from inflammatory statements, and urge their supporters to refrain from violence.

    We urge civil society, as well as the media to be aware of their important roles, and call upon the Judiciary and security services to fulfill their responsibilities with professionalism and impartiality.

    We call upon all Sierra Leonean youth and women to engage and participate peacefully in the elections.

    We reiterate that ensuring a level playing field for all political actors should be a priority for all institutions and individuals concerned in enabling inclusive, peaceful and credible elections.

    The elections come after a series of successful elections recently held in West Africa. ECOWAS, the AU, the UN and the EU wish to express their confidence in the capacity of national actors to successfully conclude the electoral process, as a milestone towards nurturing and deepening democratic and participatory governance and maintain this successful trend in the region.

    Freetown, 28 February 2018

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes quinquennales, qui indiquent les tendances saisonnières, et aux prix de l'année précédente.

    L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.

    Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2) Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Serra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3) Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.

    Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé.

    (2) Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.

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    Source: Institute for Security Studies
    Country: Liberia, Sierra Leone

    Amanda Lucey and Liezelle Kumalo

    This policy brief explores how the UN can ensure successful transitions and what sustaining peace means in practice.

    Liberia and Sierra Leone are undergoing important transitions. The countries provide important case studies on how the United Nations (UN) can ensure successful transitions, not only from peacekeeping to peacebuilding but also from conflict to building a sustainable peace. With the current UN focus on conflict prevention for sustaining peace, this policy brief provides practical recommendations on what this means in practice.

    About the authors

    Amanda Lucey is a senior research consultant in the Peace Operations and Peacebuilding Division of the ISS. With 10 years of peacebuilding and South–South cooperation experience, she has worked for the UN in the DRC and South Sudan. She holds an MPhil in Justice and Transformation from the University of Cape Town.

    Liezelle Kumalo is a researcher in the Peace Operations and Peacebuilding Division of the ISS. Her work experience includes gender, peace and security, and peacebuilding. She has an MA in International Relations from the University of the Witwatersrand.

    For more on building sustainable peace in Liberia, watch this exclusive ISS/United Nations video.

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    Source: Institute for Security Studies
    Country: Angola, Central African Republic, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Liberia, Morocco, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Togo, World, Zimbabwe

    In this issue

    On the Agenda – Focus on 30th summit

    The election of 10 new PSC members shows that consultation within regions prevailed over competition between member states.

    Rwandan President Paul Kagame is still struggling to convince all member states to agree to AU reforms.

    Plans to make Nepad a development agency are pitting the old guard against the reformers.

    Situation Analysis

    The recent calls for sanctions against South Sudan could fall on deaf ears if the region and the UN Security Council remain divided.

    After several postponements, the inter-Togolese political dialogue nally started this month in the Togolese capital Lomé.

    PSC Interview

    The UN’s representative in the Central African Republic says the root cause of much of the violence in the country is the absence of state authority.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    West Africa can be divided into three agro-ecological zones or three different trade basins (West Basin, Central Basin and East Basin). Both important for understanding market behavior and dynamics. The three major agro-ecological zones are the Sahelian, the Sudanese and the Coastal zones where production and consumption can be easily classified. (1) In the Sahelian zone, millet is the principal cereal cultivated and consumed particularly in rural areas and increasingly, when accessible, in urban areas. Exceptions include Cape Verde where maize and rice are most important, Mauritania where sorghum and maize are staples, and Senegal with rice. The principal substitutes in the Sahel are sorghum, rice, and cassava flour (Gari), the latter two in times of shortage. (2) In the Sudanese zone (southern Chad, central Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, southern Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Serra Leone, Liberia) maize and sorghum constitute the principal cereals consumed by the majority of the population. They are followed by rice and tubers, particularly cassava and yam. (3) In the Coastal zone, with two rainy seasons, yam and maize constitute the most important food products. They are supplemented by cowpea, which is a significant source of protein.
    The three trade basins are known as the West, Central, and East basins. In addition to the north to south movement of particular commodities, certain cereals flow horizontally. (1) The West basin refers to Mauritania, Senegal, western Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and The Gambia where rice is most heavily traded. (2) The Central basin consists of Côte d'Ivoire, central and eastern Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Togo where maize is commonly traded. (3) The East basin refers to Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Benin where millet is traded most frequently. These three trade basins are shown on the map above.

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    Source: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
    Country: Bangladesh, Central African Republic, Chad, Croatia, Cuba, Ethiopia, India, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, World, Yemen


    Voici deux ans déjà, le magazine Un seul monde consacrait un dossier à la « faim». Il y était question de sous-nutrition et de malnutrition, ainsi que des problèmes liés à la sécurité alimentaire. À l’époque, on estimait que la lutte contre la faim dans le monde durerait quelques années encore. Malgré des revers inévitables, le succès, dans l’ensemble, paraissait inéluctable. Hélas, la réalité est aujourd’hui tout autre.
    Alors que j’écris ces lignes, 27 millions de personnes au Yémen et dans différentes régions d’Afrique sont menacées par la famine. Elles dépendent presque entièrement de l’aide humanitaire.
    Comme dans la plupart des situations de faim aiguë, des denrées alimentaires sont plus que nécessaires pour éviter une catastrophe humaine, mais ne suffisent pas à résoudre la crise. Celle-ci résulte presque toujours d’un conflit armé. La production cesse et la population concernée n’a pas accès à la nourriture.
    Ce cas de figure se retrouve en particulier au Soudan du Sud, au Yémen et dans certaines régions du Nigeria.
    La mort par inanition ne constitue pas seulement la fin tragique de destins humains dans ces pays. Elle est aussi causée, ou du moins admise, par l’homme.
    La DDC a mobilisé quinze millions de francs supplé-mentaires en février de l’an dernier pour lutter contre la famine dans les pays africains touchés par ce fléau. L’aide parvient, certes, aux populations qui en ont besoin, mais l’acheminement se révèle souvent extrêmement difficile et donc onéreux. En de nombreux endroits, notre principal partenaire sur le terrain, le Programme alimentaire mondial des Nations Unies, ne peut effectuer, pour des raisons de sécurité, que des largages aériens de vivres. Ces derniers coûtent dix fois plus cher que l’approvisionnement par voie terrestre.
    Ce nouveau numéro d’Un seul monde présente les énormes défis que doit relever la communauté internationale pour faire face à la crise alimentaire qui sévit en Afrique.
    Le sujet suivant ne permettant pas de transition habile, je n’essaie même pas d’en trouver une. Il porte sur la refonte graphique de la revue que vous avez probablement déjà remarquée.
    J’avoue n’avoir pas de sensibilité esthétique prononcée.
    Rien d’étonnant donc que mes collègues d’Un seul monde aient peiné à me convaincre de la nécessité d’une nouvelle mise en page pour notre publication. Lorsque les graphistes du DFAE m’ont vanté les mérites des «espaces de détente visuels» – un des éléments innovants –, je suis resté sceptique.
    J’ai finalement jugé sage de m’en remettre à des personnes dotées d’un sens artistique plus aiguisé que moi.
    Le résultat de cette démarche, chères lectrices et chers lecteurs, vous le tenez entre vos mains et en serez les juges ultimes. J’espère que, comme moi, vous estimerez l’objectif atteint, qu’Un seul monde est encore plus agréable à lire et que les nombreux espaces de détente visuels (sans guillemets cette fois-ci) mettent davantage en valeur la qualité des articles.
    Manuel Sager Directeur de la DDC

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