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ReliefWeb - Updates on Sierra Leone

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Italy, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tunisia, Western Sahara, World

    Missing Migrants Project traque les décès des migrants, y compris les réfugiés, qui parcourent des itinéraires de migration mixte dans le monde.

    Cette carte montre les différentes routes de transit au Niger. #MissingMigrants


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Japan, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, World, Yemen

    The Government of Japan has allocated USD 34.3 million to support IOM’s operations to assist vulnerable migrants including displaced persons, refugees, returnees and affected communities around the world in 2017.

    The funding will also contribute to increasing the capacity of various governments in humanitarian border management to cope with displacement resulting from conflicts and to enhance security.

    Over half of the amount (USD18.1 million) has been allocated towards IOM programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Somalia and South Sudan.

    A significant amount of the money will be used to improve border management capacity of governments in Western Africa, including Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania and Niger.

    IOM offices in Middle East and North Africa, including Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Turkey and Yemen, have also received significant funding for the regional response to the Syrian crisis and assistance to internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Iraq, Libya and Yemen.

    In Afghanistan, the funding will be used to provide vulnerable Afghan returnees from Iran with life-saving, post-arrival humanitarian assistance and to build local capacities in the country through the return of skilled nationals from Iran.

    In Ukraine, the funding will help IOM to rehabilitate social infrastructure and enhance social cohesion in selected communities in the conflict-affected Donbas region.

    The Japanese government in the past has supported IOM’s humanitarian and recovery activities, including the delivery of immediate live saving relief, community stabilization and early recovery activities, as well as emergency return and reintegration assistance for migrants caught up in crises.

    For further information, please contact Yuko Goto at IOM Tokyo, Tel: + 81 3 3595 0108, Email: iomtokyo@iom.int


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    An analysis based on actual persons registered in the UNHCR refugee database (proGres)


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    Source: UN General Assembly
    Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Myanmar, Niger, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, World, Yemen

    Summary

    The present report covers the period from 1 January to 31 December 2016, during which the Peacebuilding Fund allocated $70.9 million to 17 countries. The year was marked by an overall improvement in programmatic results, demonstrating that three years of dedicated Fund support to country partners during project design, monitoring and evaluation, including a near fivefold increase in evaluations and a sixfold increase in support missions, had been a sound investment. Among its achievements and historic firsts, the Fund exceeded the United Nations-wide commitment to allocate at least 15 per cent of resources to women’s empowerment, expanded its unique role in financing cross-border and regional peacebuilding initiatives, and launched the first United Nations dedicated funding stream in support of Security Council resolution 2250 (2015) on youth, peace and security. Against these achievements and despite expressions of support from a wide range of Member States, including $152.5 million raised during a September 2016 pledging conference, the Fund’s financial health remains in question at a time when the demand for its assistance has reached historic highs. Options for securing adequate, sustainable financing for peacebuilding will be outlined in my upcoming report on sustaining peace in 2017.

    I. Introduction

    1. The present annual report, covering the period from 1 January to 31 December 2016, is the seventh report submitted to the General Assembly pursuant to Assembly resolution 63/282. It covers the third and final year of the Business Plan 2014-2016 of the Peacebuilding Fund. This report will be complemented by a financial report issued by the Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office no later than 1 May 2017. Additional information can be found at http://www.unpbf.org, and complete information on individual projects can be found on the Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office Gateway (http://mptf.undp.org).

    II. Global performance and lessons learned

    2. The year 2016 heralded the historic adoption by the General Assembly and the Security Council of concurrent resolutions on the review of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture (see A/69/968-S/2015/490), the most comprehensive and far-reaching resolutions on peacebuilding to date. The emphasis of Assembly resolution 70/262 and Council resolution 2282 (2016) on the centrality of sustaining peace, which encompasses the imperative of conflict prevention, the need to address all stages of the conflict cycle, the importance of breaking silos, both at Headquarters and in the field, and the need to ensure national ownership and inclusivity, has important implications for the strategic priorities of the Peacebuilding Fund. In those resolutions, the Assembly and the Council welcomed the valuable work undertaken by the Fund as a catalytic, rapid-response and flexible pooled fund and recognized the need for United Nations peacebuilding efforts to have adequate, predictable and sustained financing.

    3. With a view to replenishing the Peacebuilding Fund, a ministerial-level pledging conference was organized on the margins of the seventy-first session of the General Assembly in September 2016. The conference, co-hosted by the Governments of Kenya, the Netherlands, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, received strong political support from 32 ministers for foreign affairs who backed the Fund’s approach and its contribution to sustaining peace. Notwithstanding this significant endorsement, the resulting $152.5 million in pledges fell short of the $300 million goal, the minimum amount needed to sustain operations for three years. As highlighted by the Deputy Secretary-General at the closing, the conference signified not the end but the beginning of efforts to secure adequate, predictable resources for the Fund. Such efforts include options for funding United Nations peacebuilding which will be outlined in my forthcoming report, mandated by the aforementioned resolutions, on sustaining peace.

    4. During 2016, the Peacebuilding Support Office continued to warn that without predictable financing, it would not be able to sustain current levels of support, let alone meet growing demands. The Peacebuilding Fund allocated $70,956,966 million to 17 countries in 2016 (see table 1 on the Fund’s active portfolio). By contrast, it received $57,760,692 million in contributions. The conference and multiple reviews and external evaluations of the Fund have recognized the singular role it plays in ensuring strategic coherence and funding politically risky yet necessary endeavours. Such recognition will soon need to translate into predictable and sustainable financing if the Fund is to remain a reliable partner of States and societies committed to sustaining peace.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes quinquennales, qui indiquent les tendances saisonnières, et aux prix de l'année précédente.

    L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.
    Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2)
    Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Sierra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3) Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.
    Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé.

    (2) Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.


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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    Introduction

    More than 11 000 people died from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone during the 2014–15 West Africa epidemic: many times more than the total infected during all previous outbreaks of the disease combined. But that terrible death toll is only half of the story. The unprecedented scale of the outbreak resulted in an unprecedented number of survivors, many of whom still need help to deal with the lasting physical and psychosocial consequences of their infection. This new, complex and often marginalised patient population placed a significant additional burden on the shattered health systems of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone— systems that urgently needed to be rebuilt. The severity of the outbreak also opened the eyes of the world to our collective vulnerability to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and the need for coordinated global action to ensure that we are better prepared for the next outbreak—forearmed with the vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics that were absent during the height of the EVD epidemic.

    Previous reports to donors have detailed WHO's leading role in the international response that, by the end of 2015, had successfully brought an end to human-tohuman transmission directly linked to the original outbreak. This report describes the work done by WHO from January 2015 up to the end of December 2016 to address the long-term issues of survivor care, health-systems strengthening and research. This work would not otherwise have been possible without the foresight and commitment of donors who, having contributed generously to the WHO-led response to the outbreak, recognised the importance of dealing with its consequences.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    West Africa can be divided into three agro-ecological zones or three different trade basins (West Basin, Central Basin and East Basin). Both important for understanding market behavior and dynamics.

    The three major agro-ecological zones are the Sahelian, the Sudanese and the Coastal zones where production and consumption can be easily classified. (1) In the Sahelian zone, millet is the principal cereal cultivated and consumed particularly in rural areas and increasingly, when accessible, in urban areas. Exceptions include Cape Verde where maize and rice are most important, Mauritania where sorghum and maize are staples, and Senegal with rice. The principal substitutes in the Sahel are sorghum, rice, and cassava flour (Gari), the latter two in times of shortage. (2) In the Sudanese zone (southern Chad, central Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, southern Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Serra Leone, Liberia) maize and sorghum constitute the principal cereals consumed by the majority of the population. They are followed by rice and tubers, particularly cassava and yam. (3) In the Coastal zone, with two rainy seasons, yam and maize constitute the most important food products. They are supplemented by cowpea, which is a significant source of protein.

    The three trade basins are known as the West, Central, and East basins. In addition to the north to south movement of particular commodities, certain cereals flow horizontally. (1) The West basin refers to Mauritania, Senegal, western Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and The Gambia where rice is most heavily traded. (2) The Central basin consists of Côte d'Ivoire, central and eastern Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Togo where maize is commonly traded. (3) The East basin refers to Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Benin where millet is traded most frequently. These three trade basins are shown on the map above.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Sierra Leone

    KEY MESSAGES

    • The dry season, which started in December, is progressing normally across the country. Generally, there was average to above-average production of cereals, tubers, cocoa, coffee and vegetables in the 2016/17 season. This, in addition to expected above-average off-season production, will most likely continue to support access to food for poor households and almost all districts will remain in Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity from February to September 2017.

    • Markets continue to function normally across the country providing livelihoods for poor households through petty trading and agriculture sales. However, the continued depreciation of the Leone will affect prices of food commodities and imports, particiualrly in the lean season when prices usually increase. Reduced purchasing power may affect some vulnerable households, but most will not have to resort to atypical coping strategies for food access during the scenario period.

    • Average to above-average production of rice and vegetables is supporting household access to food in Kailahun district, which will improve to Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity from February to May 2017. However, rainy season declines in transportation will be exacerbated by above-average petrol and commodity prices. Reduced purchasing power will cause most poor households to forgo some non-food expenditures and Kailahun is expected to deteriorate to Stressed (IPC Phase 2) acute food insecurity from June to September.


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    Source: Action Contre la Faim France
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Sierra Leone recorded its first Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) case on 24th May 2014. By 7th November 2015, when the country was initially declared free from the EVD epidemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO), over 8,000 people had been infected, resulting in more than 3,500 deaths and 4,000 survivors all over the country. On 31st July 2014, the President of Sierra Leone, His Excellency Ernest Bai Koroma, declared a state of public health emergency that was maintained throughout the outbreak.

    Several restrictive measures were accordingly adopted, including quarantine and banning of public gathering except for the ones related to Ebola sensitisation. This situation seriously impeded all sectors of the economy, including agriculture, and thus impacted the food security status of the population. Over 15,000 households were directly affected by the EVD and taken under weeks-long quarantines. In addition to loosing family members or surviving the virus, most of the directly affected households also lost their Income Generating Activities (IGAs) either as a result of stigmatisation, health impairment due to side effects of the EVD infection or even material loss of households’ goods (burnt after a case was identified in the household).

    As part of its intervention in the Ebola and post Ebola context, Action Contre la Faim – Sierra Leone (ACF – SL) designed a project to address these needs, with the financial support from ECHO. The project, “Mitigating the dangers of localized food insecurity in Sierra Leone – Supporting the start or restart of income generating activities (IGAs) of EVD’s survivors’ households”, was implemented from July to December 2015. With the overall objective of addressing the problems of immediate food insecurity faced by directly EVD-affected communities, the project aimed at contributing to the livelihood recovery of these households by supporting them to start or restart IGAs at household level. The intervention was based on two main components including capacity building of the beneficiaries’ business development skills; and establishment of the IGAs through conditional cash transfer for the purchase of the necessary equipments.

    After reviewing the humanitarian context, including the EVD outbreak impact on food security in Sierra Leone, this project case study takes you through the detailed rationale and implementation of the 2 components mentioned above, and presents its main impacts, challenges and lessons learnt.

    For more information, please contact: fslhod@sl.missions-acf.org and advocacyexpert@sl.missions-acf.org


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    Source: Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
    Country: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, World

    Summary

    From November 8-9, 2016, Norway, Sierra Leone, Zambia, and the Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA)1, with the support of the Save the Children Pan-African and African Union Liaison Office, hosted a workshop focused on the implementation of the Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict (the Guidelines)2. Representatives from ministries of defense and education and the national armed forces of 14 of the 17 African states that have already endorsed the Safe Schools Declaration (the Declaration), as well as regional and international peacekeeping and education experts, met to exchange practices and experiences on protecting educational facilities during armed conflict.

    The workshop discussed the situations in a number of states directly affected by armed conflict where attacks on students, teachers, and schools have occurred. Participants also considered several states, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Sudan, which have policies aimed at preventing the use of schools and universities for military purposes.

    This forum allowed state representatives to discuss how governments can meet the commitments in the Safe Schools Declaration and bring the Guidelines into relevant domestic legislation, policies, and operational frameworks. Presentations from the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) and the African Union (AU) demonstrated how different stakeholders can work together to protect schools from attack and prevent their use for military purposes.

    The workshop also featured the testing of a draft toolkit on understanding and implementing the Guidelines, which is being developed through a partnership between GCPEA and the Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative. This toolkit contains guidance and sample instruments to help states strengthen trainings and practices on the protection of educational facilities from military use and attack. The workshop participants provided feedback on the current draft and offered suggestions for inclusion. The toolkit will be launched in 2017 following testing by the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and further consultations.

    The implementation of measures discussed during the workshop will be showcased at the Second International Safe Schools Conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in March 2017.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Timor-Leste, Uganda, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    La faim persiste dans les zones de conflits chroniques malgré de bonnes récoltes mondiales

    Les urgences liées à la sécurité alimentaire sont appelées à augmenter

    2 mars 2017, Rome - Selon le dernier rapport de la FAO Perspectives de récoltes et situation alimentaire, si les réserves mondiales de nourriture sont abondantes, l'accès à la nourriture est fortement restreint dans les zones touchées par les conflits civils, tandis que la sécheresse aggrave l'insécurité alimentaire dans de nombreuses régions d'Afrique de l'est.

    Près de 37 pays ont besoin d'une aide extérieure pour se nourrir, 28 d'entre eux se situent en Afrique australe et subissent toujours les effets prolongés de la sécheresse de l'année dernière provoquée par le phénomène climatique El Niño et notamment ses répercussions sur les récoltes en 2016. Pourtant, alors que la production agricole devrait connaître un rebond dans cette sous-région, les combats et les troubles prolongés contribuent aux déplacements de population et entraînent des souffrances liées à la faim dans d'autres régions du monde.

    La famine a été officiellement déclarée au Soudan du Sud et la situation de la sécurité alimentaire suscite de vives inquiétudes dans le Nord du Nigeria, en Somalie et au Yémen.

    Au Soudan du Sud, 100 000 personnes sont confrontées à la famine dans les comtés de Leer et de Mayendit, qui faisaient auparavant partie de l'Etat d'Unité, sachant qu'il existe une «forte probabilité» qu'une situation semblable soit d'actualité dans les deux comtés voisins. D'un point de vue général, près de 4,9 millions de personnes à travers le pays sont classifiées comme étant confrontées à une crise, une urgence ou encore une famine. Ces chiffres devraient augmenter pour atteindre les 5,5 millions, soit presque la moitié de la population du pays lors du pic de la saison creuse en juillet.

    « Nous sommes faces à une situation sans précédent. Nous n'avions jamais été confrontés à 4 menaces de famine dans plusieurs pays en même temps » a déclaré M. Kostas Stamoulis, Sous-Directeur général et responsable du Département développement économique et social. « Il s'agit d'agir vite en apportant une aide agricole mais également en renforçant les moyens d'existence afin de s'assurer que de telles situations ne se répètent pas.

    Dans le Nord du Nigéria, 8,1 millions de personnes sont en situation d'insécurité alimentaire aiguë et ont besoin d'une intervention humanitaire d'urgence qui devra également protéger leurs moyens d'existence. Malgré des récoltes céréalières supérieures à la moyenne en 2016, cette situation n'a pu être évitée et s'explique notamment par les perturbations causées par le conflit et la forte dépréciation de la monnaie locale.

    Au Yémen, où 17 millions de personnes (soit deux tiers de la population) sont considérées comme étant en situation d'insécurité alimentaire, presque la moitié d'entre elles ont besoin d'une aide d'urgence. Le rapport indique que «le risque d'annonce de famine dans le pays est très élevé».

    En Somalie, le conflit, l'insécurité civile et la sécheresse ont contribué à doubler le nombre de personnes considérées comme étant en situation de grave insécurité alimentaire depuis six mois (ils seraient près de 2,9 millions). La sécheresse a également contribué à limiter le fourrage disponible pour les éleveurs et pour la troisième fois consécutive, de faibles pluies devraient également nuire à la production agricole dans les régions du sud et du centre, en la faisant baisser de 70 pour cent par rapport à sa moyenne et en favorisant l'épuisement des stocks alimentaires.

    Les conflits et les troubles civils en Afghanistan, au Burundi, en République centrafricaine, en République démocratique du Congo, en Irak, en Birmanie et en Syrie ont également contribué à exacerber l'insécurité alimentaire pour des millions de personnes et ont également affecté les pays voisins qui accueillent des réfugiés. De plus, la sécheresse en Afrique de l'Est, à la fin de l'année 2016, a accentué l'insécurité alimentaire dans plusieurs pays de la sous-région.

    Les tendances mondiales

    De manière générale, en 2016, la production de céréales a connu des gains relativement importants dans le monde, avec notamment une relance record en Amérique centrale et de plus grandes cultures céréalières en Asie, en Europe et en Amérique du Nord.

    Si l'on se projette en avant, les premières prévisions mondiales de la FAO pour la production de blé en 2017 indiquent une baisse d'1,8 pour cent par rapport au niveau record enregistré l'année dernière. Cela est principalement dû aux prévisions faisant état d'une baisse de la production de 20 pour cent aux Etats-Unis, où les superficies ensemencées pour le blé d'hiver n'ont jamais été aussi réduites en l'espace de 100 ans. Les prévisions pour les cultures de maïs en 2017 sont favorables au Brésil et en Argentine et les perspectives sont bonnes, de manière générale, pour les céréales secondaires dans tout l'hémisphère sud. Les perspectives pour le riz sont mitigées mais il est encore trop tôt pour se prononcer de manière catégorique pour de nombreuses autres cultures importantes à travers le monde.

    En Afrique australe, les récoltes de maïs, amoindries par le phénomène El Niño, devraient s'améliorer cette année, avec notamment la production sud-africaine qui devrait augmenter de plus de 50 pour cent depuis 2016 et avec des tendances semblables vers la hausse dans les pays voisins. Néanmoins, une invasion de chenilles légionnaires et des inondations au Mozambique, en Zambie et au Zimbabwe pourraient limiter les gains de production en 2017.

    Les 37 pays ayant actuellement besoin d'une aide alimentaire extérieure sont l' Afghanistan, le Burkina Faso, le Burundi, le Cameroun, la République centrafricaine, le Tchad, le Congo, la République populaire démocratique de Corée, la République démocratique du Congo, Djibouti, l'Erythrée, l'Ethiopie, la Guinée, Haïti, l'Irak, le Kenya, le Lesotho, le Libéria, la Libye, Madagascar, le Malawi, le Mali, la Mauritanie, le Mozambique, la Birmanie, le Niger, le Nigéria, le Pakistan, la Sierra Leone, la Somalie, le Soudan du Sud, le Soudan, le Swaziland, la Syrie, l'Ouganda, le Yémen et le Zimbabwe.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Global harvests strong but hunger persists amid chronic conflict zones

    Food security emergencies are likely to increase

    2 March 2017, Rome - Global food supply conditions are robust, but access to food has been dramatically reduced in areas suffering civil conflicts, while drought conditions are worsening food security across swathes of East Africa, according to the new edition of FAO's Crop Prospects and Food Situation report.

    Some 37 countries require external assistance for food, 28 of them in Africa as a result of lingering effects of last year's El Niño-triggered droughts on harvests in 2016. Yet, while agricultural production is expected to rebound in southern Africa, protracted fighting and unrest is increasing the ranks of the displaced and hungry in other parts of the world.

    Famine has been formally declared in South Sudan and the food security situation is of grave concern in northern Nigeria, Somalia and Yemen.

    “This is an unprecedented situation. Never before have we been faced with 4 threats of famine in multiple countries simultaneously,” said FAO Assistant Director-General Kostas Stamoulis, head of the Economic and Social Development department. “It demands swift action which should consist of immediate food assistance but also livelihood support to ensure that such situations are not repeated.”

    In South Sudan, 100,000 people were facing famine in Leer and Mayendit Counties, part of former Unity State, while there was an "elevated risk" that similar conditions existed in two nearby counties. Overall, about 4.9 million people across the country were classified as facing crisis, emergency or famine. That number is projected to increase to 5.5 million, or almost half the country's population, at the peak of the lean season in July.

    In northern Nigeria, 8.1 million people are facing acute food insecurity conditions and require urgent life-saving response and livelihood protection. That comes despite the above-average cereal harvest in 2016 and reflects the disruption caused by conflict as well as the sharp depreciation of the Naira.

    In Yemen, 17 million people or two-thirds of the population are estimated to be food insecure, while almost half of them are in need of emergency assistance, with the report noting that "the risk of famine declaration in the country is very high."

    In Somalia, the combination of conflict, civil insecurity and drought have resulted in more than double the number of people - now estimated at 2.9 million - being severely food insecure from six months ago. Drought has curtailed fodder for pastoralists and the third consecutive season of poor rainfall is estimated to have reduced crop production in southern and central regions to 70 percent below average levels, leaving food stocks depleted.

    Conflicts and civil unrest in Afghanistan, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Myanmar and Syria are also exacerbating food insecurity conditions for millions of people as well affecting nearby countries hosting refugees. In addition, the drought in East Africa in late 2016 has heightened food insecurity in several countries in the sub-region.

    Worldwide trends

    Cereal production made quite strong gains in the world overall in 2016, with a record recovery in Central America, and larger cereal crops in Asia, Europe and North America.

    Looking ahead, FAO's first global wheat production forecast for 2017 points to a 1.8 percent decline from last year's record level, due mostly to a projected 20 percent output drop in the United States of America, where the area sown to winter wheat is the lowest level in over 100 years.

    Prospects are favourable for the 2017 maize crop in Brazil and Argentina and the outlook is generally positive for coarse grains throughout the Southern Hemisphere. Prospects for rice are mixed, but it is still too early to make firm predictions for many of the world's major crops.

    Maize harvests in Southern Africa, slashed by El Niño, are forecast to recover this year, with South Africa's output expected to increase by more than 50 percent from 2016, with positive trends likely in most nearby countries. However, an outbreak of armyworms, along with localized flooding in Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe, could limit larger production gains in 2017.

    The 37 countries currently in need of external food assistance are Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe.

    Contact
    Christopher Emsden
    FAO Media Relations (Rome)
    (+39) 06 570 53291
    christopher.emsden@fao.org


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    Source: US Agency for International Development
    Country: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    OVERVIEW

    • Many countries across the African continent face recurrent complex emergencies, frequent food insecurity, cyclical drought, and sudden-onset disasters such as earthquakes, floods, and storms. In FY 2016, as in previous years, USAID/OFDA not only responded to urgent needs resulting from disasters, but also supported DRR programs that built resilience and improved emergency preparedness, mitigation, and response capacity at local, national, and regional levels.

    • USAID/OFDA’s FY 2016 DRR activities in Africa included instituting early warning systems for hazards, strengthening agricultural livelihoods to mitigate the effects of drought and food insecurity, and engaging vulnerable communities to understand and implement disaster preparedness and mitigation practices. USAID/OFDA assistance also promoted efforts to build national capacity for disaster response and to connect DRR actors within local, regional, and international civil society organizations operating throughout the region.

    • USAID/OFDA-supported initiatives included programs that integrated DRR activities into ongoing emergency response efforts, bolstering the capacity of stakeholders to respond to continuing crises, such as complex emergencies and food insecurity.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe


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    Source: UN General Assembly
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    I. Introduction

    1. The Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions has considered the report of the Secretary-General on the lessons learned exercise on the coordination activities of the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER) (A/70/737 and Corr.1). During its consideration of the report, on 31 March 2016, the Committee met with representatives of the Secretary-General, including the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General on Ebola, who provided additional information and clarification, concluding with written responses received on 10 February 2017.

    2. The report of the Secretary-General was submitted in response to General Assembly resolution 69/274 B, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to provide, at the first part of its resumed seventieth session, detailed information in the context of his lessons learned exercise, on, inter alia: (a) the coordination activities of the Mission and the Office of the Special Envoy with the wider United Nations system, the Governments of the most affected countries and other actors; (b) the results of his in-depth review of the organizational, administrative and planning aspects, and operations on the ground; and (c) the final performance, including the liquidation and the disposal of the assets of the Mission and the Office of the Special Envoy. The Assembly also requested the Secretary-General to ensure that the disposal of all assets upon the liquidation of the Mission was in accordance with the United Nations regulations and rules.

    3. In the same resolution, the General Assembly also welcomed the establishment, on 2 April 2015, of the High-level Panel on the Global Response to Health Crises, which would take into account, inter alia, the recent experience in dealing with the Ebola outbreak, and encouraged the Secretary-General to ensure that the lessons learned exercises were complementary.

    4. The Advisory Committee also recalls that, at its request, the Board of Auditors included in its report on the financial statements of the United Nations for 2015 a commentary on the financial and asset management of UNMEER based on a preliminary analysis (A/71/5 (Vol. I), chap. II, paras. 58-68). The Board will provide a more detailed analysis in the context of its report on the financial statements of the United Nations for 2016 (see para. 37 below).

    II. Background

    5. Information on the events leading up the establishment of the Mission and on its mandate and role is provided in paragraphs 1 to 10 of the report of the Secretary-General. The Mission was established on 19 September 2014 following the adoption of General Assembly resolution 69/1, and closed on 31 July 2015, following a transition period of 5 months initiated in February 2015. The liquidation of UNMEER was completed on 31 August 2015.

    6. The Advisory Committee recalls that the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General on Ebola was mandated to represent the United Nations system and to provide overarching strategic leadership, coordination and guidance, including through consultations with the Member States and other stakeholders, as well as to lead international efforts to mobilize and sustain the necessary political will and strategic resources.

    7. UNMEER was mandated to build and maintain a regional operational platform, ensuring the rapid delivery of international assistance against the needs identified in the affected States, lead the Ebola emergency response at the operational level and provide operational strategic direction to the United Nations system, the United Nations country teams and other implementing partners on the ground. The Mission, which was headquartered in Accra, was headed by a Special Representative of the Secretary-General at the Under-Secretary-General level, with an in-country crisis response team headed by an Ebola crisis manager at the Assistant Secretary-General level in each of the three affected countries — Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.


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    Source: UN General Assembly
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    I. Introduction

    1. Le Comité consultatif pour les questions administratives et budgétaires a examiné le rapport du Secrétaire général sur l ’examen des enseignements tirés des activités de coordination menées par la Mission des Nations Unies pour l’action d’urgence contre l’Ebola (MINUAUCE) (A/70/737 et Corr.1). À cette occasion, il a rencontré, le 31 mars 2016, des représentants du Secrétaire général, dont l ’Envoyé spécial pour l’Ebola, qui lui ont fourni des éclaircissements et des compléments d’information avant de lui faire parvenir des réponses écrites, reçues le 10 février 2017.

    2. Le rapport du Secrétaire général a fait suite à la résolution 69/274 B de l’Assemblée générale, dans laquelle l’Assemblée a demandé au Secrétaire général, dans le cadre de son examen des enseignements tirés de l ’expérience de la Mission, de lui présenter durant la première partie de la reprise de sa soi xante-dixième session un rapport détaillé sur, notamment : a) les activités de coordination menées par la Mission et le Bureau de l’Envoyé spécial avec les autres organismes des Nations Unies, les gouvernements des pays les plus touchés et les autres intervenants; b) les résultats de l’étude approfondie qu’il aurait réalisée sur les questions d’organisation, d’administration et de planification de la Mission, et sur ses opérations sur le terrain; c) le dernier rapport sur l’exécution du budget, notamment la liquidation et la réforme ou la cession des biens de la Mission et du Bureau de l’Envoyé spécial. L’Assemblée a également prié le Secrétaire général de veiller à ce que tous les biens soient réformés ou cédés à la liquidation de la Mission, conformément aux règlements et règles de l’Organisation.

    3. Dans la même résolution, l’Assemblée s’est également félicitée de la création, le 2 avril 2015, du Groupe de haut niveau sur l ’action mondiale face aux crises sanitaires, qui prendrait notamment en compte l ’expérience acquise récemment face à l’épidémie d’Ebola, et encouragé le Secrétaire général à veiller à ce que les études sur les enseignements tirés de l’expérience soient complémentaires.

    4. Le Comité consultatif rappelle également que, à sa demande, le Comité des commissaires aux comptes a fait figurer dans son rapport sur les états financiers de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour 2015 un commentaire sur la gestion des actifs financiers et de la MINUAUCE se fondant sur une analyse préliminaire (A/71/5 (Vol I), chap. II, par. 58 à 68). Le Comité des commissaires aux comptes fournira une analyse plus détaillée dans son rapport sur les états financiers de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour 2016 (voir par. 37 ci-dessous).

    II. Historique

    5. On trouvera aux paragraphes 1 à 10 du rapport du Secrétaire général des informations sur les événements qui ont conduit à la création de la MINUAUCE ainsi que sur son mandat et son rôle. Elle a été créée le 19 septembre 2014 à la suite de l’adoption de la résolution 69/1 de l’Assemblée générale, et a pris fin le 31 juillet 2015, après une période de transition de 5 mois ayant commencé en février 2015. Sa liquidation s’est achevée le 31 août 2015.

    6. Le Comité consultatif rappelle que l ’Envoyé spécial du Secrétaire général pour l’Ebola a été chargé de représenter le système des Nations Unies, de jouer un rôle primordial sur les plans de la direction, de la coordination et de l ’orientation stratégiques, y compris au moyen de consultations avec les États Membres et d’autres parties prenantes, ainsi que de lancer des initiatives internationales pour mobiliser la volonté politique et les ressources stratégiques nécessaires.

    7. La MINUAUCE a été chargée de mettre en place une plateforme opérationnelle régionale qui permettrait d ’acheminer rapidement l’aide internationale fournie pour répondre aux besoins recensés dans les États touchés, dirigerait les interventions d ’urgence au niveau opérationnel et donnerait des orientations stratégiques au système des Nations Unies et aux autres partenaires d’exécution présents sur le terrain. La Mission, dont le quartier général avait été établi à Accra, était dirigée par un Représentant spécial du Secrétaire gén éral ayant rang de Secrétaire général adjoint, avec une équipe d ’intervention en cas de crise présente sur place, dirigée par un responsable de la gestion de la crise de l ’Ebola au niveau national ayant rang de Sous-Secrétaire général dans chacun des trois pays touchés – Guinée, Libéria et Sierra Leone.


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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: Burkina Faso, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Senegal, Sierra Leone

    6 March 2017 – The United Nations political affairs chief today stressed that West Africa could be a model of how the UN can work with local partners in bringing stability to regions or sub-regions.

    “The situation in West Africa says a lot of the region’s growing capacity to deal with regional problems,” said Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman at a regular briefing at the UN Headquarters in New York, following a one-week visit to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Guinea, The Gambia and Senegal.

    The key objective of his visit was to advance sustaining peace initiatives in Burkina Faso and the Gambia – two countries that are in political transition. He also said that the situation in Guinea-Bissau, which he did not visit this time, was also a major topic of discussion during his trip.

    The transition in the Gambia is “a very clear case of prevention,” in which the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the African Union (AU) and the UN were “all united behind the will of Gambian people.”

    In January, the former President of the Gambia, Yahya Jammeh, decided to facilitate an immediate and orderly transition process and transfer of power to President Adama Barrow after concerted mediation efforts by a number of African leaders to help resolve the crisis in the country following the presidential elections in December.

    The situation is still fragile, however. With the legislative polls to be held on 6 April, the cohesion of the seven-party ruling coalition will be tested, he said.

    On Burkina Faso, Mr. Feltman highlighted some progress made since the new leader was inaugurated in December 2015, including the country’s improved relationships with its neighbours, in particular with Côte d’Ivoire.

    He said he discussed with President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré and other officials the implementation of key reforms that will help consolidate stability in the country, including in the economic and security spheres.

    Mr. Feltman said Burkina Faso was successful in rallying international support for its 2016-2020 national plan for economic and social development, with donors pledging 28.6 billion euros at a conference in December.

    Mr. Feltman highlighted the contributions of ECOWAS and the UN Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS) to these countries’ transitions.

    “Working with local actors and subregional organizations can make the UN more effective in prevention,” he said, underscoring the need to build on the leverage and credibility that local partners have inside countries.

    For instance, Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, who chairs ECOWAS, can talks to fellow Heads of States in West Africa as a peer and as someone who with real leverage and credibility on the ground, he noted.


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    Source: Irish Aid
    Country: Ethiopia, Haiti, Ireland, Malawi, Mozambique, Nepal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Uganda, World, Zimbabwe

    Now in its 10th year, the Emergency Response Fund Scheme (ERFS) was established to promote early action and reduce loss of life in a sudden humanitarian crisis. Irish Aid has just allocated €2.7 million to six humanitarian partners under the Scheme for 2017: Concern Worldwide, Trócaire, Christian Aid Ireland, Plan International Ireland, World Vision Ireland and Oxfam Ireland.

    How does the Fund work?

    The scheme is particularly geared towards the initial weeks after the onset of an emergency and targets those in immediate need.

    At the beginning of each year, Irish Aid pre-positions a defined amount of funding with long-standing partner NGOs. With approval from Irish Aid, NGOs can access these standby funds to respond quickly after an emergency occurs, or when a protracted humanitarian situation suddenly deteriorates. It allows time for a rapid assessment of need and speedy planning to ensure appropriate responses.

    Over the last decade, Irish Aid’s partners have carried out more than 150 humanitarian responses to emergencies in over 40 countries, through ERFS support. Here we take a look back at how they responded to five of the most significant crises of the past decade.

    2010 Haiti Earthquake

    On January 12, a 7 Magnitude earthquake caused massive destruction and loss of life in Haiti, with death-toll estimates ranging from 100,000 to 160,000 people. ERFS partner Concern Worldwide immediately began rolling out safe drinking water and hygiene facilities to those whose homes had been destroyed, while GOAL carried out an emergency response to a cholera outbreak in Port-au-Prince and implemented a Cash for Work programme to support local livelihoods, recovery and reconstruction.

    2012 Philippines Typhoon

    The Category 5 Super Typhoon Bopha, known locally as Typhoon Pablo, cut across the Philippines in December and devastated many areas, causing destruction of property and affecting over 6 million people. Emergency responses followed from Christian Aid Ireland, who provided immediate food, shelter, non-food items and emergency cash assistance to poor and vulnerable families. Plan International Ireland was supported to distribute water and hygiene kits in a number of communities.

    2014 Ebola Response

    In 2014 alone, the Ebola virus epidemic affected over 20,000 people and left millions at risk in several West African countries. Concern Worldwide, GOAL, World Vision Ireland and Oxfam Ireland all implemented ERFS responses aimed at reducing and preventing the spread of the disease in Sierra Leone, supporting survivors and addressing the specific gender dynamics in the Ebola response. Concern also worked in Liberia, implementing prevention and awareness-raising strategies, while Plan International Ireland distributed hygiene kits in Guinea, reaching over 550,000 people.

    2015 Nepal Earthquake

    The catastrophic 7.8 Magnitude earthquake in Nepal on April 25 killed 8,000 people and affected 8 million more. This prompted humanitarian responses from all 6 current ERFS partners – Concern Worldwide, Trócaire, Plan International Ireland, World Vision Ireland, Christian Aid Ireland and Oxfam Ireland – who provided food, access to health services, water purification systems, temporary shelter and non-food items to those in need.

    2016 El Niño

    From 2015 to 2016, the El Niño phenomenon brought extreme weather conditions, mainly drought and flooding, to over thirty countries worldwide. Concern Worldwide responded to severe food insecurity and malnutrition in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Uganda by providing vulnerable communities with water, food, seed assistance and access to improved health services. Christian Aid Ireland supplied food to drought-affected households in Malawi, and to households experiencing food insecurity in South Sudan as a result of conflict and drought. In Zimbabwe, Oxfam Ireland, Plan International Ireland and Trócaire also responded to emergency food security needs. In Somalia, World Vision Ireland implemented child health and nutrition services for drought-affected communities, and Trócaire addressed a cholera outbreak resulting from a lack of clean water.

    Reflecting on 10 years of the Emergency Response Fund Scheme, Joe McHugh T.D., Minister of State for the Diaspora and International Development, stated:

    “The ERFS scheme is a critical component of Ireland’s global humanitarian assistance, allowing for rapid, life-saving and life-sustaining responses to situations of devastating crisis. Working with trusted partners, who are best-placed to respond, enables Ireland to meet critical humanitarian needs in countries where we may not ourselves have a presence on the ground. I applaud the continued essential work of our partners in humanitarian action and their role in delivering on Ireland’s values and objectives of a just and sustainable world”.

    Note:

    Note: Irish Aid also responded to these and other crises with complementary funding schemes, such as the Humanitarian Programme Plan (for situations of protracted crisis), the Rapid Response Initiative (by deploying emergency personnel and supplies), Calls for Proposals (for sudden onset emergencies), support to the Start Fund (for immediate response to smaller-scale, under-the-radar emergencies) and our programmes of bilateral assistance, such as in Sierra Leone during the Ebola crisis.

    Find out more about ERFS.


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