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ReliefWeb - Updates on Sierra Leone

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    Source: UN Security Council, UN General Assembly
    Country: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Mali, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Timor-Leste, World

    I. Introduction

    1. The present report has been prepared pursuant to General Assembly resolution 60/180 and Security Council resolution 1645 (2005), in which the Peacebuilding Commission was requested to submit an annual report to the General Assembly for an annual debate and review. The report will also be submitted to the Council, pursuant to its resolution 1646 (2005), for an annual debate. The report covers the tenth session of the Commission, held from 1 January to 31 December 2016.

    2. On 27 April 2016, the General Assembly and the Security Council adopted parallel, substantively identical, resolutions on the review of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture (General Assembly resolution 70/262 and Security Council resolution 2282 (2016)), by which the two organs, inter alia, requested the Peacebuilding Commission to include, in its annual reports, information on progress made in reviewing its working methods and provisional rules of procedure and encouraged the Commission, through its Organizational Committee, to consider diversifying its working methods to enhance its efficiency and flexibility in support of sustaining peace. The structure and content of the present report therefore includes information on the work undertaken by the Commission in implementing the relevant recommendations contained in the resolutions on the review of the peacebuilding architecture, while also reflecting the priorities identified in the annual report of the Commission on its ninth session (A/70/714-S/2016/115).

    II. Work of the Peacebuilding Commission

    A. Peacebuilding and sustaining peace: opportunities and challenges

    3. The Commission embarked on the work of its tenth session in the spirit of examining the far-reaching recommendations of the report of the Advisory Group of Experts on the Review of the Peacebuilding Architecture (A/69/968-S/2015/490) and implementing the above-mentioned resolutions on the review of the peacebuilding architecture adopted by the General Assembly and the Security Council. Both the Assembly and the Council, in those resolutions, define sustaining peace as:
    a goal and a process to build a common vision of a society, ensuring that the needs of all segments of the population are taken into account, which encompasses activities aimed at preventing the outbreak, escalation, continuation and recurrence of conflict, addressing root causes, assisting parties to conflict to end hostilities, ensuring national reconciliation, and moving towards recovery, reconstruction and development, and emphasizing that sustaining peace is a shared task and responsibility that needs to be fulfilled by the Government and all other national stakeholders, and should flow through all three pillars of the United Nations engagement at all stages of conflict, and in all its dimensions, and needs sustained international attention and assistance
    In those resolutions, the Assembly and the Council also called for the strengthening of the Commission, its convening and bridging role and its partnerships with other stakeholders, including the international financial institutions, in addition to addressing country-specific situations. They also called for better intergovernmental coherence, partnerships and operational and policy coherence and invited the Secretary-General to provide options on increasing, restructuring and better prioritizing funding dedicated to United Nations peacebuilding activities.

    4. Throughout the reporting period, the Commission continued to address the situations in Burundi, the Central African Republic, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Since the eruption of the political crisis in Burundi in 2015, the Commission has intensified its focus on that country. Through visits to Burundi and the region, the Council’s Burundi configuration has engaged with the Government and national stakeholders, encouraging a peaceful solution by Burundians, with regional and international support, including that of the African Union, the East African Community and neighbouring countries. During his two visits to Burundi and the region, the Chair of the Burundi configuration also engaged the authorities of the United Republic of Tanzania, Rwanda, the African Union and the mediator of the East African Community, the former President of the Republic of Tanzania, Benjamin Mkapa, highlighting the importance of a holistic peacebuilding approach based on the three pillars of the United Nations system, as they are outlined, inter alia, in General Assembly resolution 60/251, and of local capacities for peace, including the constructive work of the group of women mediators. In another example of the convening power of the Commission, and its capacity to add value, it championed policy discussions on the economic impact of the political crisis in Burundi, including through consultations in Geneva on the country’s socioeconomic situation, briefings with officials from the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Government authorities in charge of finance and the economy, and with representatives of the private sector in Burundi, with a focus on relations between the Government and its international partners.


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    Source: Human Rights Watch
    Country: Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, World

    African Governments Should Do More to End Female Genital Mutilation

    Bahati was 10 years old when she was told she should “get prepared to become a real Maasai woman.” She knew what this meant. Her sister had been told the same thing when she had turned 10. “They cut her and forced her to marry a month later,” Bahati recalled. “I started crying. I was afraid.”

    These were the words of a 12-year-old Tanzanian girl describing her experience of female genital mutilation (FGM) two years ago. She told Human Rights Watch researchers that her grandmother had forced her to leave school to undergo FGM, in order to prepare her for marriage.

    FGM is the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical purposes. At least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone it, most of them in Africa. In Somalia and Guinea, almost all young girls and women are cut, while over 80 percent in Djibouti, Sierra Leone, Mali, Egypt, Sudan, and Eritrea have been mutilated. FGM is mostly carried out on young girls from infancy to around age 15.

    February 6 is International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation. This year’s theme targets Africa specifically, with the ambitious aim to end FGM by 2030.

    FGM is not usually done by families to expressly harm their daughters. In fact, they often believe it is the right thing to do, whether as a mark of cultural or religious identity, or as something necessary for a girl’s cleanliness, marriage prospects, or family “honor.”

    Whatever the motive, FGM is a form of violence against women and girls. It is irreversible and carries immediate and long-term negative impacts on women’s physical and mental health. It can kill. And FGM is also a form of discrimination against women, reflecting deep-seated gender inequalities.

    FGM poses a particular challenge for governments because it is rooted in cultural practices, and is often carried out in secrecy. But change is possible. Recent data showing a slow decline in its overall prevalence indicates a shift towards denouncing FGM and a commitment to end it. Still, too many girls are at risk of this outdated, violent practice, and African governments should take decisive action to end it.

    International best practice shows that a holistic approach that enables communities to see FGM differently – as harmful – and to come up with alternatives, is most successful. Introducing laws banning FGM in ways that empower communities is important. Strong political leadership is also needed to mobilize and raise awareness, provide financial resources, and properly protect girls.

    More than anything, younger generations of girls need to know that they will not go through Bahati’s experience.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food Security Cluster
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nepal, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tonga, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, Vanuatu, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    The interactive map, found at https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/en/assessments/map, allows you to check if assessments have taken place in certain locations, if they are planned or ongoing and if something has already happened in a specific sector. The interactive global Assessment registry is built from assessments uploaded on humanitarianresponse.info by OCHA, the cluster leads and humanitarian partners. You can filter by country, cluster, organization and date. Whenever available, you can download an assessment’s report, questionnaire and/or data.

    Currently, there are more than 3,000 assessments in the registry from past and present emergencies. You may contribute to the registry in the future by making your planned, ongoing and past assessment data available. Simply contact info@humanitarianresponse.info if you would like an assessment added.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Highlights

    • WFP provided food to 12 Ebola Virus Disease orphan care centers in the Western Area as an interim measure to get them integrated into foster families.

    • The UN Network for Scaling up Nutrition (SUN) and Renewed Efforts Against Child Hunger and undernutrition (REACH) concluded a four day mission to Sierra Leone and met with nutrition stakeholders including donors, UN agencies, relevant Government Ministries.

    Operational Updates

    • WFP participated in a four day mission from the UN Network on Scaling up Nutrition (SUN) and Renewed Efforts Against Child Hunger and undernutrition (REACH) to Sierra Leone. The mission met with technical focal points and heads of UN agencies, relevant government ministries and donor agencies including Irish Aid, USAID, European Union and DFID. Outcomes of the mission include a draft work plan and budget for the UN Network as well as terms of reference for a National Facilitator.

    • WFP provided food to 12 Ebola Virus Disease orphan care in interim centers in the Western Area as part of a three month food support to orphans in these centers. WFP plans to scale up support to extend to foster families nationwide.

    • Food deliveries to health centers (or whichever place from which you distribute food) for tuberculosis clients on direct observatory treatment have commenced countrywide and distributions were expected to begin before the end of January.

    • Road conditions have improved with the onset of the dry season, which has enabled WFP to deliver food to previously inaccessible chiefdoms in Bombali and Kambia districts.
      Challenges

    • There were delays in signing a new contract for the rapid response crane service after the previous one expired in December 2016 due to lack of response from potential service providers. However, a new contract with nine months duration has now been signed after the tender was re-advertised in the newspapers and on the radio.

    • Contracts for commercial transporters were adjusted upwards to accommodate the recent 60 percent rise in the price of fuel. Warehouse labor service providers are similarly pushing for a contract rate adjustment based on the prevailing economic situation in the country. The rapid change in prices for goods and services are likely to have financial implications for WFP.

    Partnerships

    • WFP conducted an evaluation for World Vision, which will act as an implementing partner to provide support to EVD orphans. WFP also evaluated the NGO Building Resources Across Communities, which is currently implementing the Japanese Bilateral project.

    • WFP has initiated field level agreements with seven NGOs and six district agriculture offices across the country for the implementation of nutrition and livelihood activities for 2017.


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    Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
    Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Nepal, Sierra Leone, World

    Bruxelles, le 18 janvier 2017

    Dans un rapport publié ce jour, la Cour des comptes souligne le succès du mécanisme de protection civile de l'UE, géré par la Commission européenne, en réaction aux catastrophes naturelles et aux principales épidémies récentes dans le monde.

    Une coordination européenne efficace

    La Cour des comptes européenne publie ce jour son rapport spécial sur le mécanisme de protection civile de l'Union. Les auditeurs ont jugé que la réaction de l'UE en matière de protection civile était «bien coordonnée» et que la gestion de la Commission, par l'intermédiaire de son Centre de coordination de la réaction d'urgence, qui fonctionne 24 heures sur 24, sept jours sur sept, avait été «efficace». Ils se sont notamment penchés sur trois catastrophes récentes pour lesquelles le mécanisme a été activé: les inondations de 2014 en **Bosnie-Herzégovine**, l'épidémie d'Ebola en **Afrique de l'Ouest** entre 2014 et 2016 et le tremblement de terre au **Népal** en 2015. Les activations ont été rapides. La Commission a respecté le rôle de chef de file des Nations unies et pris des mesures pour assurer une transition sans heurts vers la phase de rétablissement.

    «_Lorsqu'une catastrophe se produit, il convient d'agir rapidement. Une bonne gestion des catastrophes permet de sauver des vies, et une coordination efficace entre les différents intervenants – comme cela a été le cas ici – est indispensable pour garantir une préparation et une réaction adéquates aux catastrophes_», a déclaré Hans Gustaf Wessberg, le membre de la Cour des comptes chargé du rapport. «_La fonction de coordination de la Commission et son centre de crise qui fonctionne 24 heures sur 24, sept jours sur sept, illustrent bien la valeur ajoutée de la coopération européenne_».

    «_Je me réjouis de l'évaluation positive de la Cour concernant le fonctionnement du mécanisme européen de protection civile. Ce rapport était l'occasion de montrer aux citoyens de l'UE que cette dernière pouvait aider en cas de catastrophe et que c'est lorsqu'elle met en commun les capacités et les expertises qu'elle est la plus forte_», a déclaré Christos Stylianides, commissaire européen pour l'aide humanitaire et la gestion des crises. «_En cas de catastrophe, chaque minute compte. Une action rapide et coordonnée peut sauver des vies. C'est comme cela que se définit la solidarité européenne_».

    La Commission avait accepté toutes les recommandations d'améliorations de la Cour, dont la plupart étaient déjà en cours de réalisation.

    Contexte

    Le mécanisme de protection civile de l'UE a été initialement créé en 2001. Il est géré par la Commission européenne. Il vise à renforcer la coopération rapide et efficace entre les services de protection civile de l'UE et des six pays participants et à faciliter la coordination dans le domaine de la protection civile en vue de rendre plus efficaces les systèmes de prévention, de préparation et de réaction en cas de catastrophes. Une réserve volontaire d'équipes de secours et d'experts, ainsi qu'une réserve de matériel provenant de pays de l'UE sont constituées et mises à disposition dès que nécessaire pour des missions de protection civile de l'UE dans le monde entier.

    Références


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guinea, Iraq, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    YOKOHAMA – The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) welcomed the announcement last week of a US$85.2 million cash contribution from the Government of Japan. The donation will enable WFP to provide vital food and nutrition assistance in 33 countries across Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

    “This generous donation comes at a time when increasing numbers of vulnerable people around the globe are desperately seeking safety, food and hope for tomorrow,” said Kojiro Nakai, Officer-in-Charge of WFP Japan Office. “We are most grateful for Japan’s leadership in promoting the “humanitarian-development nexus” (the linking relief and development assistance) through sustainable solutions addressing both urgent hunger needs and underlying causes. Together with Japan, WFP will continue to work towards zero hunger.”

    About half of the donation from Japan, or US$47 million, will support WFP’s operations in 23 African countries, particularly in response to slow-onset crises in Malawi, Lesotho and Swaziland, where the El Niño phenomenon has severely affected the food security of millions of people.

    In Malawi, Japan’s funds will enable WFP to purchase maize, pulses and vegetable oil for nearly 420,000 food-insecure people to benefit from seamless relief, recovery and resilience-building activities in collaboration with partners including the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).

    About forty percent of the total contribution will be allocated to assist refugees and internally-displaced people in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Nigeria and neighbouring Cameroon. The largest portion of the contribution, totalling US$13 million, will provide life-saving food and vouchers to 340,000 people in Yemen, currently suffering one of the largest, yet least reported humanitarian crises.

    WFP logistics operations will also benefit from Japan’s donation in Afghanistan, Sudan, and South Sudan, where the agency runs the United Nations Humanitarian Air Service, providing critical air transport and cargo services for the entire humanitarian community.

    The contributions are broken down as follows:

    Yemen (US$13 million), Iraq (US$7.1 million), Jordan (US$6 million), Niger (US$ 5.1 million), South Sudan (US$4.1 million), Turkey (US$4 million), Afghanistan (US$3.2 million), Mauritania (US$2.9 million), Somalia (US$2.9 million), Uganda (US$2.9 million), Malawi (US$2.6 million), Central African Republic (US$2.2 million), Democratic Republic of the Congo (US$ 2.2 million), Guinea (US$2.2 million), Ethiopia (US$2.2 million), Kenya (US$2.2 million), Lebanon (US$2 million), Burundi (US$1.5 million), Cameroon (US$1.5 million), Chad (US$1.5 million), Sierra Leone (US$1.5 million), Zimbabwe (US$1.5 million), Rwanda (US$1.5 million), Lesotho (US$1.2 million), Djibouti (US$1.1 million), Burkina Faso (US$1 million), Sudan (US$1 million), Syria (US$1 million), Nigeria (US$1 million), Swaziland (US$1 million), Republic of Congo (US$0.9 million), Libya (US$0.7 million), Egypt (US$0.5 million).


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mali, Malta, Morocco, Myanmar, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Portugal, Romania, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, World

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • Until 31 January 2017, there were 4,480 cumulative arrivals to Italy, compared to 5,273 arrivals recorded in the same month in 2016 (a 15% decrease). Greece has seen a 97% lower number of arrivals in January 2017 when compared to the same period in 2016, 1,387 and 67,954 respectively.

    • According to available data, there have been 11,233 new arrivals to Greece, Italy and Bulgaria, as countries of first arrival to Europe since the beginning of 2017 till 8 of February 2017.

    • The total number of migrants and refugees stranded in Greece and in the Western Balkans is 74,909. Since the implementation of the EU-Turkey agreement on the 18th of March, the number of migrants and refugees stranded in Greece increased by 59%. For the rest of the coun-tries, please read page 5.

    • As of 8 February 2017, there have been 11,990 indi-viduals relocated to 24 European countries. Please see the new page on relocations for more information.

    • As of 31 January 2017, a total of 864 migrants and refugees were readmitted from Greece to Turkey as part of the EU-Turkey Agreement with last readmis-sion taking place on 31 January 2017. The majority of migrants and refugees were Pakistani, Syrian, Af-ghan, Algerian and Bangladeshi nationals. See Tur-key section.

    • Information about “contingency countries” in the Western Balkans (Albania, Kosovo (SCR 1244)*, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) is on page 29.

    • For information on this report, including details on the sources of this report’s data and tallying method-ologies used, please see page 30.

    • For more updates on the Central Mediterranean route, please check IOM’s Mediterranean portal with most recent DTM report from Libya and Niger.


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    Source: Centre for Security Governance
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Executive Summary

    Sierra Leone’s initial approach to Security Sector Reform (SSR) was state-centric, ad-hoc and shaped by immediate events, as the country was mired in a civil war. However, the post-war period opened space for the adoption of a human security lens to SSR. In 2001, a community security approach called Local Needs Policing (LNP) was initiated. It was predicated on the need to address the security gap that existed at the time and restore public trust and confdence in the police. Through LNP, the Local Police Partnership Boards (LPPBs), the Chiefdom Police Partnership Committees (CPPC) and the Area Police Partnership Committees (APPC) were subsequently formed. While the CPPC and the APPC have been less active, the LPPBs became instrumental in changing the face of the police in local communities.

    After its establishment in 2004, the Ofce of National Security (ONS) developed similar decentralized structures known as the District Security Committees (DISEC), Provincial Security Committees (PROSEC) and Chiefdom Security Committees (CHISEC). Together, the PROSEC, DISEC and CHISEC have been working with the LPPBs on justice and securityrelated issues in all the districts of Sierra Leone. Alongside this, the UK Government, through the Justice Sector Development Programme (JSDP) and the Access to Security and Justice Programme (ASJP), actively promoted the involvement of non-state actors in security and justice related issues. These approaches have to a large extent changed people’s perceptions of, and participation in, justice and security related issues in Sierra Leone. Alongside these various developments, the country’s adoption of a new National Security Policy and Strategy (NSPS) in 2015, seemed to crystalize a shift in Sierra Leone to a second generation SSR model.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, World


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, World


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    Source: Thomson Reuters Foundation
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    If these 'superspreaders' had been identified and quarantined promptly, most Ebola cases could have been avoided

    By Kieran Guilbert

    DAKAR, Feb 14 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Most people infected with Ebola in the world's worst outbreak of the deadly virus contracted it from just a tiny fraction of patients known as "superspreaders", researchers said on Tuesday.

    Six in 10 cases of the disease, which ravaged the West African nations of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone between 2013 and 2016, were caused by just three percent of infected people, according to research carried out by several health experts.

    If these superspreaders, who were most likely to be under 15 and over 45, had been identified and quarantined promptly, most Ebola cases could have been avoided, the study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found.

    The slow international response to the epidemic outbreak was criticised in 2015 by medical charity Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), which first raised the alarm over Ebola, for having created an avoidable tragedy that cost thousands of lives.

    "It was the infected people who didn't make it to health centres, and into isolation, that drove the epidemic," said Amanda McClelland, emergency health advisor at the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC).

    "The lesson to be learned is that you need to find every single case if you are going to stop an outbreak," McClelland told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

    The Ebola epidemic infected more than 28,600 people and killed around 11,300 before coming under control last year.

    Children under 15 years old and adults over 45 were the biggest spreaders of Ebola, according to the study, which examined 200 cases in and around the capital of Sierra Leone, Freetown.

    Younger and older patients were more likely to have been looked after for by many relatives and caregivers, thus fuelling the spread of the disease, several of the researchers said.

    Many people in the three Ebola-hit countries contracted the virus, which is passed on through blood and bodily fluids, by holding and embracing the infected, and washing and touching the bodies of the deceased at traditional burials.

    "People between the ages of 15 and 45 were most likely to be carers and caring for someone with Ebola is a big risk factor in contracting the virus," said Sebastian Funk, assistant professor at The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM).

    Superspreaders also fuelled epidemics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, in 2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012, according to the study.

    (Reporting By Kieran Guilbert, Editing by Katie Nguyen. Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers humanitarian news, women's rights, trafficking, property rights, climate change and resilience. Visit http://news.trust.org)


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    Source: Thomson Reuters Foundation
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    If these 'superspreaders' had been identified and quarantined promptly, most Ebola cases could have been avoided

    By Kieran Guilbert

    DAKAR, Feb 14 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Most people infected with Ebola in the world's worst outbreak of the deadly virus contracted it from just a tiny fraction of patients known as "superspreaders", researchers said on Tuesday.

    Six in 10 cases of the disease, which ravaged the West African nations of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone between 2013 and 2016, were caused by just three percent of infected people, according to research carried out by several health experts.

    If these superspreaders, who were most likely to be under 15 and over 45, had been identified and quarantined promptly, most Ebola cases could have been avoided, the study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found.

    The slow international response to the epidemic outbreak was criticised in 2015 by medical charity Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), which first raised the alarm over Ebola, for having created an avoidable tragedy that cost thousands of lives.

    "It was the infected people who didn't make it to health centres, and into isolation, that drove the epidemic," said Amanda McClelland, emergency health advisor at the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC).

    "The lesson to be learned is that you need to find every single case if you are going to stop an outbreak," McClelland told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

    The Ebola epidemic infected more than 28,600 people and killed around 11,300 before coming under control last year.

    Children under 15 years old and adults over 45 were the biggest spreaders of Ebola, according to the study, which examined 200 cases in and around the capital of Sierra Leone, Freetown.

    Younger and older patients were more likely to have been looked after for by many relatives and caregivers, thus fuelling the spread of the disease, several of the researchers said.

    Many people in the three Ebola-hit countries contracted the virus, which is passed on through blood and bodily fluids, by holding and embracing the infected, and washing and touching the bodies of the deceased at traditional burials.

    "People between the ages of 15 and 45 were most likely to be carers and caring for someone with Ebola is a big risk factor in contracting the virus," said Sebastian Funk, assistant professor at The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM).

    Superspreaders also fuelled epidemics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, in 2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012, according to the study.

    (Reporting By Kieran Guilbert, Editing by Katie Nguyen. Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers humanitarian news, women's rights, trafficking, property rights, climate change and resilience. Visit http://news.trust.org)


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    Source: International Peace Institute
    Country: Liberia, Sierra Leone, World

    ADAM LUPEL AND MICHAEL SNYDER

    Executive Summary

    The Ebola epidemic of 2014–2016 was a fastmoving, multidimensional emergency that pre - sented unprecedented challenges for the multi - lateral system. In response to the outbreak, which was spreading exponentially in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon established the UN’s first-ever emergency health mission, the UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER). UNMEER was mandated by the UN General Assembly in September 2014 to scale up and coordinate the activities of the UN presence on the ground working to stop the outbreak, which eventually claimed over 11,000 lives.

    This report asks: Was UNMEER needed? Was it properly structured? Did it deliver? And what broader lessons can be learned from the experience of UNMEER for UN crisis response?

    UNMEER’s creation responded to the need for a whole-of-system approach to fighting Ebola. The crisis outpaced the capacity of frontline responders, which were understaffed, under-trained, and under-resourced, to contain it. Available contingency measures would have provided neither the health expertise nor the operational direction required to halt the outbreak, and by September 2014, there was an urgent sense that something special was needed.

    The mission’s integrated mission concept enabled it to combine the World Health Organization’s technical expertise with the operational experience of other UN agencies and the UN Secretariat. The mission underwent three distinct stages between September 2014 and July 2015. It was criticized for adopting an overly topdown management style in the initial stage, and it failed early on to engage key stakeholders, including women’s groups and affected communities. Yet the mission began to decentralize during its second stage, and its sequenced approach gave it enough flexibility to reset its leadership, management style, and operations to respond to the virus’s rapid spread.

    The mission was ultimately more successful at providing operational leadership and direction— most notably in supporting the Ebola Response Strategy—than it was at directly coordinating field partners. Its ability to coordinate the scale-up of logistical capacity in the region was considered a critical multiplier for the UN response, despite serious staffing challenges that slowed the pace of deployment. Among its most important contributions was that its establishment helped to catalyze global political action, precipitating an influx of donor contributions.

    The mission’s success in raising the profile of the response and focusing the efforts of UN entities to fulfill the Ebola Response Strategy provides valuable lessons on how to bridge longstanding institutional divisions, or silos, between the UN’s principal organs and between and within the Secretariat and agencies, funds, and programs. The report concludes with eight broad lessons for UN crisis response:

    1. A sequenced approach and flexible mandate allow for better responses to unanticipated challenges.

    2. Effective responses draw upon the full range of UN tools and implementing partners based on the principle of comparative advantage, but they must take into account the challenge of integrating distinct organizational cultures.

    3. Flexible and predictable funding is critical for rapidly scaling up responses to multidimensional crises.

    4. Local engagement with key stakeholders during the peak of a crisis enhances long-term effectiveness.

    5. A system-wide communications strategy, bolstered by strong communications capacity in the field, is required from the outset.

    6. High-level coordination and oversight can provide flexibility and quick reaction.

    7. Close proximity to frontline responders and the site of the crisis enhances field coordination.

    8. A regional office can improve coordination across borders, but it must be joined with a strategy to account for the specificity of national and local contexts.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    PROJECTED FOOD ASSISTANCE NEEDS FOR AUGUST 2017

    This brief summarizes FEWS NET’s most forward-looking analysis of projected emergency food assistance needs in FEWS NET coverage countries. The projected size of each country’s acutely food insecure population is compared to last year and the recent five-year average. Countries where external emergency food assistance needs are anticipated are identified. Projected lean season months highlighted in red indicate either an early start or an extension to the typical lean season. Additional information is provided for countries with large food insecure populations, an expectation of high severity, or where other key issues warrant additional discussion.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    Prepared over a period of one year from September 2015 to September 2016, UNICEF, in partnership with relevant agencies and governments, presents feedback and lessons learned from the Child Protection Programme during the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic response in West Africa from August 2014 to December 2015.

    The report examines three affected countries – Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea – to analyse the degree to which the response was successful in addressing the scale and unique nature of the child protection situation that arose due to the epidemic. Key lessons learned and recommendations for future for future public health emergencies are provided.

    This report was referenced in conjunction with a Webinar administrated by the Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action. The webinar can be viewed here.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe


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    Source: Oxfam
    Country: Sierra Leone

    This evaluation report is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the humanitarian response thematic area using the application of Oxfam’s Humanitarian Indicator Toolkit (HIT). The report presents the findings from the evaluation carried out in 2015 of Oxfam’s humanitarian response to the Ebola crisis in Sierra Leone. The first case in Sierra Leone was declared on 24 May 2014 and by the end of July 2014 the government of Sierra Leone had declared a State of Emergency.

    This evaluation covers the period from August 2014 until the end of April 2015. Initially the Ebola crisis was viewed as a health emergency requiring responses from medical agencies; there was uncertainty whether Oxfam had the ability to respond to the nature of the emergency as a health crisis. Once this was resolved, Oxfam began activities in September 2014 with distributions of consumable materials, Water, Sanitation and Health (WASH) activities in treatment centres and awareness-raising campaigns. The programme scaled up with the Community Health Workers from the end of October 2014. There were no Emergency Food Security and Vulnerable Livelihoods (EFSVL) activities delivered to beneficiaries during the period of this evaluation other than a small cash transfer to quarantined communities. The evaluation therefore mostly covers the Public Health Engineering (PHE) and Public Health Promotion (PHP) interventions, and awareness-raising activities conducted. Humanitarian Indicator Tool (HIT) is a methodology designed to estimate the degree to which the programme meets 15 recognised quality standards via a desk review.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Italy, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tunisia, Western Sahara, World

    Missing Migrants Project tracks fatalities of migrants, including refugees, traveling along mixed migration routes around the world.

    This map shows the different transit routes in Niger. #MissingMigrants.


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