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ReliefWeb - Updates on Sierra Leone

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Usman Kanu is a rice farmer from the Masimera chiefdom in Sierra Leone. Thanks to his participation in WFP's rice farming project he has doubled his yields in the last two harvests and has been able to build himself a house from the profits. The project - funded by the Government of Japan - provides rural families with the tools and techniques to better cultivate the land around their villages. Rice production in the whole area has shot up by 186 percent, making Usman's experience just one of many success stories. As harvest season approaches this year, farmers are hoping for even better results.

    Mayombo Village, Masimera chiefdom. Sierra Leone.

    Usman Kanu sits on the porch of his new house flanked by his wife and young son. "I began building this place last November", he says, "with the money that I saved from two harvests". He gets up and starts to walk around the house, proudly explaining which of the unfinished rooms is to become the bedroom and which will be the kitchen.

    "Farming has been very good lately", he explains, "I used to grow just enough rice for myself and my family to eat, but now I harvest a lot. I can keep some and sell the rest at the market". In the last two years Usman's yield has doubled, largely thanks to his successful participation in a WFP project. The four-year scheme known as the Japanese Bilateral Project, teaches farmers to better exploit the arable, swampy land around their villages. Over 75 percent of the country's rural population relies on farming as their primary livelihood. WFP is supporting these farmers to increase their rice production, which is a vital step towards improving food security in Sierra Leone.

    Planting less and growing more

    Usman now uses just 5kg of seeds to grow 8 bags of rice (weighing 800kg), whereas previously 25kg of seeds would produce half this yield.

    Before the project was implemented in Masimera and Buya Romende, the two chiefdoms averaged 1 metric ton per hectare (ha). In 2014, after farmers received training, productivity surged by 86 percent. During the second harvest in 2015, the farmers increased production by 40 percent to cultivate 2.6mt/ha. Area Agriculture Coordinator, Amadu Bangura, says, "this year we're hoping to see even more of an increase".

    The marked improvements come as a result of monthly trainings that have taught the farmers techniques to better cultivate their crops. They learned to rehabilitate fertile land previously left wasted and unfarmed – the land has been split into manageable 0.2 ha holdings for each family. Beforehand farmers were just scattering seeds at random, meaning the crops would grow on top of each other and choke. Now they have been taught to first prepare the nursery beds and then plant in neat rows, allowing each crop a space of 20 cm by 25cm.

    Each of the project’s 530 beneficiaries were given 6kg of seeds and 60kg of fertilizer to get started. The farmers were taught how to apply the fertilizer and the optimal time of year to harvest their crop. Before the training, many farmers were waiting too late into the season when the grains were overly dry and had already started to fall off. As Bangura says, "the problem was that people simply did not know how to get the most out of their land".

    Saving the profits

    A large metal box with four padlocks clapped onto it has come to represent Mayombo village's first ever community bank. As well as helping the farmers and their families to produce more crops, the scheme also encourages them to manage profits from their harvest.

    Each family puts aside between 2,000 ($0.36) and 10,000 ($1.82) Leones a week and receives a stamp confirming the contribution in their log book. In this way the community not only saves but also has enough money to give out small loans to those who need them.

    "Being able to take a loan from this box is empowering and good for business", says WFP Programme Assistant Akinyemi Scott-Boyle, "if they have access to this money they'll be able to easily buy fertilizer for the next harvest and pay it back once the profits come in".

    So far a group of 50 farming families have managed to save 21,000,000 Leones (US$3,817.54) in just ten months. In a country where the average yearly wage is estimated at $340, this is no small feat.

    Helping Sierra Leone to become self sufficient

    Sierra Leone - which was once the biggest exporter of rice in West Africa - now doesn't produce enough to feed its people all year round. The country has very good conditions for growing rice, yet spends between $200m and $300m a year importing the commodity from places such as India and Pakistan. Both the civil war and the Ebola virus had very damaging effects on the agricultural sector, and now great stretches of arable land are left unused.

    The project's long-term aim is to boost rice production within the country so that less people have to rely on expensive imports. By the time that the project finishes in 2017 these rural families should be in a far stronger position to not only feed themselves, but also to sell their surplus rice in local markets. By helping farmers to minimize costs and increase their yields, WFP is supporting Sierra Leone to boost in-country rice production.

    Usman heads down to his holding, where thousands of bright green shoots poke out of swampy, wet land. "I really never knew that so few seeds could produce this much", he says, happily surveying his crop.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Highlights

    • In collaboration with UN-Women and IFAD, WFP conducted a four-day workshop in Koinadugu district on women leadership and nutrition-sensitive agriculture for 42 P4P-supported farmer groups and representatives from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security in 11 districts.

    • WFP concluded the second round of take-home ration food distribution, reaching 118,000 primary school children in 960 schools across the country.

    • WFP conducts a nationwide assessment of people living with HIV and TB clients in order to enhance service delivery and increase compliance to ART/TB national protocols.

    WFP is implementing activities to support the Government’s National Ebola Recovery Strategy and reverse the negative impacts of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak on food security and nutrition among vulnerable populations.

    Activities under the Country Programme (CP) include school feeding support to primary education of boys and girls. WFP's CP, which contributes to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2, 4 and 17 was designed to empower vulnerable households and individuals with the highest rates of food insecurity and illiteracy in meeting their food and nutrition needs in a sustainable way. The CP is also designed to support the government to realise its priorities set forth in the Agenda for Prosperity, particularly advancements in the education sector (SDG 4).


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Sierra Leone

    26 August 2016

    Usman Kanu is a rice farmer from the Masimera chiefdom in Sierra Leone. Thanks to his participation in WFP's rice farming project he has doubled his yields in the last two harvests and has been able to build himself a house from the profits. The project – funded by the Government of Japan – provides rural families with the tools and techniques to better cultivate the land around their villages. Rice production in the whole area has shot up by 186 percent, making Usman's experience just one of many success stories. As harvest season approaches this year, farmers are hoping for even better results.

    MAYOMBO VILLAGE, MASIMERA CHIEFDOM – Sierra Leone.

    Usman Kanu sits on the porch of his new house flanked by his wife and young son. "I began building this place last November," he says, "with the money that I saved from two harvests." He gets up and starts to walk around the house, proudly explaining which of the unfinished rooms is to become the bedroom and which will be the kitchen.

    "Farming has been very good lately," he explains. "I used to grow just enough rice for myself and my family to eat, but now I harvest a lot. I can keep some and sell the rest at the market." In the last two years Usman's yield has doubled, largely thanks to his successful participation in a WFP project. The four-year scheme, known as the Japanese Bilateral Project, teaches farmers to better exploit the arable, swampy land around their villages. Over 75 percent of the country's rural population relies on farming as its primary livelihood. WFP is supporting these farmers to increase their rice production, which is a vital step towards improving food security in Sierra Leone.

    Planting less and growing more

    Usman now uses just 5 kg of seeds to grow 8 bags of rice (weighing 800 kg), whereas previously 25 kg of seeds would produce half this yield.

    Before the project was implemented in Masimera and Buya Romende, the two chiefdoms averaged 1 metric ton per hectare (ha). In 2014, after farmers received training, productivity surged by 86 percent. During the second harvest in 2015, the farmers increased production by 40 percent to cultivate 2.6 mt/ha. Area Agriculture Coordinator Amadu Bangura says: "This year we're hoping to see even more of an increase."

    The marked improvements come as a result of monthly training that has shown the farmers how to better cultivate their crops. They learned to rehabilitate fertile land previously left wasted and unfarmed, with the ground split into manageable 0.2 ha holdings for each family. Beforehand farmers were just scattering seeds at random, meaning the crops would grow on top of each other and choke. Now they have been taught to first prepare the nursery beds and then plant in neat rows, allowing each crop a space of 20 cm by 25 cm.

    Each of the project’s 530 beneficiaries was given 6 kg of seeds and 60 kg of fertilizer to get started. The farmers were taught how to apply the fertilizer, and the optimal time of year to harvest their crop. Before the training, many farmers were waiting too late into the season when the grains were overly dry and had already started to fall off. As Bangura says: "The problem was that people simply did not know how to get the most out of their land."

    Saving the profits

    A large metal box with four padlocks clapped onto it has come to represent Mayombo village's first ever community bank. As well as helping the farmers and their families to produce more crops, the scheme also encourages them to manage profits from their harvest.

    Each family puts aside between 2,000 (USD 0.36) and 10,000 (USD 1.82) Leones a week and receives a stamp confirming the contribution in its log book. In this way the community not only saves but also has enough money to give out small loans to those who need them.

    "Being able to take a loan from this box is empowering and good for business," says WFP Programme Assistant Akinyemi Scott-Boyle. "If they have access to this money they'll be able to easily buy fertilizer for the next harvest and pay it back once the profits come in."

    So far a group of 50 farming families has managed to save 21,000,000 Leones (USD 3,817.54) in just ten months. In a country where the average yearly wage is estimated at USD 340, this is no small feat.

    Helping Sierra Leone to become self sufficient

    Sierra Leone – which was once the biggest exporter of rice in West Africa – now doesn't produce enough to feed its people all year round. The country has very good conditions for growing rice, yet spends between USD 200m and USD 300m a year importing the commodity, mainly from Asia. Both the civil war and the Ebola virus had very damaging effects on the agricultural sector, and now great stretches of arable land are left unused.

    The project's long-term aim is to boost rice production within the country, so that less people have to rely on expensive imports. By the time the project finishes in 2017 these rural families should be in a far stronger position to not only feed themselves, but also to sell their surplus rice in local markets. By helping farmers to minimize costs and increase their yields, WFP is supporting Sierra Leone in boosting in-country rice production.

    Usman heads down to his holding, where thousands of bright green shoots poke out of swampy, wet land. "I really never knew that so few seeds could produce this much," he says, happily surveying his crop.


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    Source: UN Population Fund
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    A photobook on safe childbirth

    HIGHLIGHTS AND ACHIEVEMENTS

    In Guinea, the project targeted six hospitals and 28 health centers in 14 districts of Macenta, Gueckedou, Kissidougou, Lola, N’Zérékoré, Yomou, Faranah, Siguiri, Mandiana, Koundara, Forécariah, Coyah, Kindia, and Dubréka. Major achievements in Guinea are the provision of equipment and supply for the 34 health facilities and the deployment of 68 midwives, which together have significantly reduced shortages and improved reproductive health indicators, especially the reduction of maternal and neonatal deaths.

    In Sierra Leone the MRMR initiative contributed to the rehabilitation of four comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care facilities and six basic emergency obstetric and newborn care facilities. The initiative supported two midwifery training programs (Education, Regulation, and Association) that produced 86 midwife grad- uates; a nurse anesthetist training program that produced 29 nurse anesthetists and technicians; a surgical training program on task shifting surgical/ obstetrical skills to community health outpatient officers (medium-term) and specialists in obstetrics and gynecology (long-term); and produced nine grandaunts. Six international midwives have been deployed: two at the central maternity hospital in Freetown and one at each of the district government hospitals in Port Loko, Kono, Makeni, and Kailahun. The initiative strengthened obstetric fistula prevention, treatment, and social reintegration of 250 clients in 2015 and it supported institutionalization of a maternal death surveil- lance and response (MDSR) system through development of national technical guide- lines and costed strategic plans on MDSR.

    In Liberia, the MRMR initiative has supported the deployment of midwives to more than 10 health facilities in Grand Cape Mount, Margibi, Lofa, and rural Montserrado counties to help meet the shortage of skilled birth attendants in those areas, especially in communities along the common borders with Guinea and Sierra Leone. Additionally, where there is an appreciable presence of skilled birth attendants, the initiative has deployed materials and equipment to support the health system. It also encouraged UNFPA Liberia to bring under one management structure all of its funding mechanisms aimed at strengthening maternal and newborn health services, including the H4+ SIDA, Google, and Japanese funding sources.

    Major achievements at the regional level include the establishment of an efficient coordination mechanism to address specific issues of remote cross-border areas making sure that “no one is left behind”. Successful collaboration around the Mano River Midwifery Response initiative acted as a precursor for a more comprehensive long-term Ebola recovery program informed by key actors including the governments, development partners, and civil society.


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    Source: Conciliation Resources
    Country: Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    Daniel Tucker
    Mano River Region Project Officer

    In August 2014 the World Health Organisation declared Ebola a ‘global health emergency’. Two years on, the health crisis has passed but the epidemic caused social divisions and tensions that are still having repercussions today.

    Ebola affected everyone. Entire communities were quarantined, markets and schools were closed, inflation soared and people were in a constant state of fear. With little early communication about the disease and how it was spread rumours and misinformation sparked fear and suspicion. People often mistrusted local government officials, health workers and Ebola survivors who quickly became ostracised and isolated from communities.

    The need to support the return and social acceptance of these groups was critical throughout the crisis and continues despite the epidemic being declared over – but what is the best approach to take?

    Our research and experience during and post-Ebola has shown that attempts to ‘reintegrate’ ostracised individuals back into communities have, in many cases, reinforced stigma and exclusion. By focusing on the needs of an individual, through one-off meetings with community members, the process ignored the collective suffering of the entire community and bred resentment.

    Our approach is one of reconciliation. This means creating an ongoing space for community conversations, and looks to understand the interests and needs of all parties, develop areas of common interest and recognise shared experience. Conciliation Resources supports networks of local peacebuilders called District Platforms for Dialogue (DPDs) to work within their communities to discuss grievances and overcome tensions.

    It is crucial that strategies for supporting the return of ostracised and isolated groups understand the complexities of this crisis, and that no one was immune from the effects of the Ebola epidemic.

    For further information read ‘Beyond reintegration towards reconciliation in the post-Ebola context.’


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    Source: UN Development Programme
    Country: Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia

    Gender inequality is costing sub-Saharan Africa on average $US95 billion a year, peaking at US$105 billion in 2014– or six percent of the region’s GDP – jeopardising the continent’s efforts for inclusive human development and economic growth, according to the Africa Human Development Report 2016.

    The report analyses the political, economic and social drivers that hamper African women’s advancement and proposes policies and concrete actions to close the gender gap. These include addressing the contradiction between legal provisions and practice in gender laws; breaking down harmful social norms and transforming discriminatory institutional settings; and securing women’s economic, social and political participation.

    Deeply-rooted structural obstacles such as unequal distribution of resources, power and wealth, combined with social institutions and norms that sustain inequality are holding African women, and the rest of the continent, back. The report estimates that a 1 percent increase in gender inequality reduces a country’s human development index by 0.75 percent.

    Highlights

    • African women achieve only 87 percent of the human development outcomes of men

    • African women hold 66 percent of the all jobs in the non-agricultural informal sector and only make 70 cents for each dollar made by men

    • Only between 7 and 30 percent of all private firms have a female manager

    • Gender gap costs sub-Sahara Africa $US95 billion a year


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    Source: UN Development Programme
    Country: Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia

    Les disparités entre les genres coûtent quelque 95 milliards de dollars US par an en moyenne à l’Afrique subsaharienne et ont culminé à 105 milliards de dollars de pertes en 2014 (soit 6 % du PIB régional), compromettant de ce fait les efforts du continent en faveur d’un développement humain et d’une croissance économique inclusifs, indique le Rapport.

    Le rapport du PNUD analyse les facteurs politiques, économiques et sociaux qui entravent la promotion de la femme en Afrique et propose des politiques et des mesures concrètes pour combler l’écart entre les genres. Il s’agit notamment de corriger la contradiction entre la législation et la pratique afin de passer d’une égalité des genres juridique à une égalité de fait, de rompre avec les normes sociales préjudiciables aux femmes et de transformer les cadres institutionnels discriminatoires, en vue de garantir la participation économique, sociale et politique des femmes.

    D’après le rapport, une augmentation de 1 % de l’indice d’inégalité de genre contribuerait à réduire l’indice de développement humain (IDH) d’un pays de 0,75 %.

    A retenir

    • Les Africaines affichent un niveau de développement humain équivalant à 87 % seulement de celui des Africains

    • Les femmes en Afrique occupent 66 % des emplois dans le secteur informel non agricole et ne gagnent que 70 cents pour chaque dollar gagné par un homme

    • Seulement 7 à 30 % des entreprises privées sont dirigées par une femme.

    • Les disparités entre les genres coûtent à l’Afrique subsaharienne 95 milliards de dollars US par an


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe


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    Source: UN Security Council, UN General Assembly
    Country: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, Uganda, World

    Summary

    The present report, submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 70/292, reviews progress made in the implementation of the recommendations contained in the report of the Secretary-General on the causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa (A/65/152-S/2010/526).

    The present report covers the period from July 2015 to June 2016 and highlights major developments regarding peace and security and its interaction with socioeconomic development in Africa. It examines the progress made by the United Nations system in implementing key priority areas identified in the review report, as well as the support the Organization has been providing in the implementation of the peace and security priorities contained in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Agenda 2063 of the African Union and its first 10-year implementation plan (2014-2023).

    Consistent with the mandate of General Assembly resolution 70/292 to develop policy proposals on persistent and emerging challenges confronting Africa, the present report addresses the issue of women’s human rights as the basis for sustainable peace and security in Africa. That thematic focus aligns with the African Union’s declared theme for 2016, the “African Year of Human Rights with Particular Focus on the Rights of Women”. The report also presents concrete recommendations to, inter alia, uphold and enhance the rights and roles of women as key drivers and partners in the quest to achieve, in particular, the Agenda 2063 goal of “silencing the guns by 2020” to end all wars in Africa by 2020, as well as Goal 5, on gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, and Goal 16, on peaceful and inclusive societies, access to justice and effective and accountable institutions, of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

    I. Introduction

    1. Following a request from the Security Council (S/PRST/1997/46), my predecessor undertook, in 1998, a comprehensive analysis of the causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa. The subsequent report proposed specific measures to significantly reduce conflict, build peace and promote inclusive development in Africa (see A/52/871-S/1998/318).

    2. In its resolution 63/304, the General Assembly requested me to submit a report reviewing the status of implementation of the recommendations contained in the 1998 report. Following broad-based consultations, including with the United Nations system through the Interdepartmental Task Force on African Affairs, coordinated by the Office of the Special Adviser on Africa, I issued a review report outlining progress, recommendations and proposals for a renewed engagement with Africa (see A/65/152-S/2010/526).

    3. Pursuant to additional requests of the General Assembly, in its successive resolutions on the subject, I continue to submit annually a progress report on the causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa, focusing, inter alia, on persistent and emerging challenges and innovative solutions and measures for their redress. In that context and in support of the decision of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union to declare 2016 the “African Year of Human Rights with Particular Focus on the Rights of Women”, the present report focuses on the important role of women’s human rights in advancing sustainable peace and security in Africa.

    4. The report highlights the complementarities and synergies between the gender equality and women’s empowerment aspirations and goals contained in Agenda 2063 and its first 10-year implementation plan, and those of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It underscores the importance of ensuring the full rights of African women and girls in peace and security, including in the implementation of the outcomes of the 2015 reviews of United Nations peace operations and the United Nations peacebuilding architecture and the Global Study and High-level review of the implementation of Security Council resolution 1325 on women, peace and security, as well as the 2016 World Humanitarian Summit.


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    Source: UN Security Council, UN General Assembly
    Country: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, Uganda, World

    Résumé

    Le présent rapport est soumis en application de la résolution 70/292 de l’Assemblée générale et fait le point sur les progrès réalisés dans la mise en oeuvre des recommandations figurant dans le rapport du Secrétaire général sur les causes des conflits et la promotion d’une paix et d’un développement durables en Afrique (A/65/152-S/2010/526).

    En application du mandat énoncé dans la résolution 70/292 de l’Assemblée générale, qui prévoit l’élaboration de propositions de politiques sur les obstacles persistants et défis naissants auxquels l’Afrique doit faire face, le présent rapport se penche sur la question des droits fondamentaux des femmes en tant que fondement d’une paix et d’une sécurité durables en Afrique. La mise en exergue de cette problématique concorde avec les projets de l’Union africaine, qui a déclaré 2016 « Année africaine des droits de l’homme, en particulier des droits des femmes ». Le rapport formule également des recommandations concrètes pour, entre autres, défendre et renforcer les droits et rôles des femmes en tant que principaux moteurs et partenaires dans la réalisation, notamment, de l’objectif de l’Agenda 2063 consistant à faire taire les armes d’ici 2020 pour mettre fin à toutes les guerres en Afrique d’ici là, mais aussi de l’objectif 5 du Programme de développement durable à l’horizon 2030 sur l’égalité des sexes et l’autonomisation des femmes et des filles, et de l’objectif 16 sur l’avènement de sociétés pacifiques et ouvertes à tous, l’accès à la justice et la mise en place d’institutions efficaces et responsables.

    I. Introduction

    1. En 1998, à la demande du Conseil de sécurité (S/PRST/1997/46), mon prédécesseur avait procédé à une analyse approfondie portant sur les causes des conflits et la promotion d’une paix et d’un développement durables en Afrique. Un rapport rédigé à ce sujet évoquait un ensemble de mesures visant à désamorcer les conflits, instaurer la paix et promouvoir un développement inclusif en Afrique (voir A/52/871-S/1998/318).

    2. Dans sa résolution 63/304, l’Assemblée générale m’a prié de lui soumettre un rapport faisant le point sur l’application des recommandations formulées dans le rapport de 1998. Au terme de consultations ouvertes, notamment avec le système des Nations Unies par l’intermédiaire de l’Équipe spéciale interdépartementale chargée des questions relatives à l’Afrique, coordonnées par le Bureau du Conseiller spécial pour l’Afrique, j’ai publié un rapport d’examen décrivant les progrès accomplis et présentant des recommandations et des propositions en faveur d’un engagement renouvelé des Nations Unies en Afrique (voir A/65/152-S/2010/526).

    3. En réponse aux autres demandes que l’Assemblée générale m’adresse dans ses résolutions successives sur les causes des conflits et la promotion d’une paix et d’un développement durables en Afrique, je lui présente tous les ans un rapport d’activité dans lequel je mets notamment l’accent sur les problèmes persistants et défis naissants auxquels le continent fait face et les solutions et mesures novatrices qui pourraient être adoptées pour s’y attaquer. Dans ce contexte, et à l’appui de la décision de la Conférence des chefs d’État et de gouvernement de l’Union africaine de proclamer 2016 « Année africaine des droits de l’homme, en particulier des droits des femmes », le présent rapport met l’accent sur le rôle important des droits fondamentaux des femmes dans la promotion d’une paix et d’une sécurité durables en Afrique.

    4. Le rapport met en lumière les complémentarités et synergies entre les objectifs et aspirations à l’égalité des sexes et à l’autonomisation des femmes énoncés dans l’Agenda 2063 et son premier Plan décennal de mise en oeuvre d’une part, et ceux du Programme de développement durable à l’horizon 2030 d’autre part. Il souligne qu’il importe de garantir pleinement les droits des femmes et des filles africaines en matière de paix et de sécurité, notamment dans la mise en oeuvre des conclusions des examens des opérations de paix des Nations Unies en 2015, du dispositif de consolidation de la paix des Nations Unies, de l’étude mondiale et l’examen de haut niveau sur l’application de la résolution 1325 (2000) du Conseil de sécurité concernant les femmes, la paix et la sécurité, et du Sommet mondial sur l’action humanitaire de 2016.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

    • UNHRD continues to dispatch operational equipment for its Partners, most recently supporting WFP by sending ICT equipment to Freetown in Sierra Leone.

    • During the worst of the crisis, UNHRD facilities in Accra and Las Palmas served as regional staging areas and the Accra depot hosted UNMEER headquarters.

    • On behalf of WFP, UNHRD procured and dispatched construction material and equipment for remote logistics hubs, Ebola Treatment Units (ETU) and Community Care Centres. In collaboration with WHO, UNHRD also procured and dispatched equipment to establish camps for teams tracing EVD. Members of the Rapid Response Team (RRT) set-up supply hubs, an ambulance decontamination bay and ETUs.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Switzerland - IOM and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have organized a two-week technical workshop and Population Mobility Mapping (PMM) field exercise in Freetown and Port Loko, Sierra Leone.

    IOM launched a five-year program with funding from CDC in late 2015 in support of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) to better prevent, detect and respond to disease outbreaks and other public health threats, through the operationalization of IOM’s Health, Border and Mobility Management (HBMM) framework.

    As a central part of the project, IOM is currently conducting sub-regional PMM exercises, identifying patterns of mobility, areas of high congregation of travellers, health response capacity, training and infrastructure needs to inform governments on resource allocation needs in vulnerable areas at higher risk of infectious disease spread, as a direct result of human mobility. This supports the prioritization of public health interventions for emergency preparedness and response purposes in the sub-region.

    The workshop in Sierra Leone was an opportunity for the IOM GHSA missions from eight West African missions (Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Burkina Faso and Mauritania), the IOM Regional Office in Dakar and IOM HQ to meet with CDC technical advisors and senior management to discuss and align key methodologies and tools.

    The workshop was held at a crucial time, as IOM anticipates a geographical expansion for its HBMM programme, from six countries to nine, before the end of 2016.

    As a part of the PMM field exercise, IOM and CDC technical staff reviewed the Mobility Mapping Tool to reach a consensus on its scope and approach, resulting in the re-modelling of the tool.

    This revised tool was subsequently presented to stakeholders at a training session organized by IOM and presided over by the District Medical Officer of Port Loko District, which recorded the second highest rate of Ebola (EVD) infection nationwide.

    In collaboration with CDC, the new tool is tested by IOM at Kafu Bullom and Lokomasama Chiefdoms, Port Loko, while incorporating two groups of key informants (motorbike taxi operators, market traders, and youth representatives) selected from the two Chiefdoms.

    For further information please contact Dr. Teresa Zakaria at IOM HQ in Geneva, Tel. +41227179545, Email: tzakaria@iom.int


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    Source: UN Development Programme, UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations, UN Department of Political Affairs, UN Children's Fund, UN Women
    Country: Chile, Liberia, Libya, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tuvalu, World, Zambia

    “The UN Constitutional” team is pleased to present the fifth issue of its newsletter featuring articles by constitutional experts, reports from the field, and a digest of recent constitutions-related publications. In this edition, we interviewed the former Nepali Constituent Assembly chair on his role in this unique process. We also explore the importance of ‘context’ in constitutional assistance efforts, and consider the links between the SDGs and gender equality provisions in constitutions. The support provided by the UN System in eight different countries at different stages of constitution-making process is also presented.

    “The UN Constitutional” is a manifestation of the collective desire of 6 UN entities to raise awareness around the UN of constitutional issues and themes, share information, and strengthen the provision of constitutional assistance.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Sierra Leone

    Household food security improves as early harvest of food commodities begin

    KEY MESSAGES

    • Heavy rainfall (> 100mm) was recorded in the last two weeks of July, although there have been no reports of damage for recently planted 2016/17 main season crops. Normal agriculture activities including harvesting minor crops, weeding of main season crops, and planting of lowland rice are ongoing with near-average harvest levels expected this season. Most areas will be in Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity from October through January once harvests arrive.

    • Market functioning continues to improve as economic recovery from the Ebola crisis continues. However, a longer than average lean season, starting in May as opposed to June, along with continued depreciation of the Leone is causing above-average prices for food commodities. As a result, most districts will remain in Stressed (IPC Phase 2) acute food insecurity through September.

    • Port Loko and Kailahun districts were the worst hit by the Ebola epidemic and residual shock is slowing their economic recovery. Poor trade flow into and around Kailahun and the closure of two iron ore mines in Port Loko will continue to limit income for poor households.
      These districts are expected to be in Stressed (IPC Phase 2) acute food insecurity through January 2017.

    • Bo and Western Area Urban and Rural Districts are experiencing economic recovery as new businesses are being established and income opportunities improve aroundcasual labor, petty trading and security. Improved trade flows in Bo is allowing traders to move to rural communities to buy agricultural goods. These districts are in Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity through January.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Chad, Costa Rica, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    KEY MESSAGES

    • In West Africa, market availability was good in July with supplies from above-average 2015/16 regional harvests, and international rice and wheat imports. Markets remained disrupted throughout the Lake Chad Basin and in parts of Central and Northern Mali. The recent depreciation of the Naira has led to price increases across Nigeria and reduced purchasing power for livestock in the Sahel (Page 3).

    • In East Africa, staple food prices and the inflation rate increased sharply in South Sudan following abrupt escalation of conflict in Juba and the resulting significant disruption of market activity. Despite well below average supply from production in Ethiopia in late 2015 and early 2016, staple food prices have remained stable with the availability of food through humanitarian assistance programs, imports, and the start of green harvests in some areas. Maize prices increased in surplus-producing Tanzania and Uganda and exports to regional markets were constrained. Markets remain disrupted by insecurity in Yemen (Page 4).

    • In Southern Africa, maize availability is well below average following consecutive years of well-below average regional production. Production in Zambia is estimated as average, while South Africa did not produce enough to meet domestic requirements. Maize prices increased atypically early in the marketing season and are well above-average levels across the region (Page 5). Imports from outside of the region (likely from well-supplied international markets) will be required to fill the very large maize import gap.

    • In Central America, regional bean supplies were average, while imports sustained stable levels of maize supplies. Maize and bean prices were atypically stable or seasonally increased. Locally-produced staple food prices declined in Haiti with the progression of harvests in July, while imported rice and what prices remained stable (Page 6).

    • In Central Asia, wheat availability remained adequate region-wide and trade continued between surplus and deficit countries. Prices are below their respective 2015 levels in surplus-producing areas (Page 7).

    • International staple food markets remain well supplied.
      Rice prices were mixed, while maize, wheat, and soybean prices fell in July (Figure 2).
      Crude oil prices decreased and remained well below average (Page 2).


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes quinquennales, qui indiquent les tendances saisonnières, et aux prix de l'année précédente.

    L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.

    Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2) Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Serra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3) Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.

    Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé.

    (2) Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Angola, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Turkey, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania

    Contexte actuel

    La planification humanitaire pour 2016 prévoit 4,3 millions de personnes dans le besoin dont 1,5 million ciblées pour une assistance humanitaire, reflétant des niveaux élevés de vulnérabilité dans tout le pays.

    Le Tchad continue à ressentir l'impact de la crise nigériane dans la région du Lac ainsi que des conflits dans les pays voisins (Libye, Soudan et RCA). Le pays accueille 388 313 réfugiés dont 306 741 réfugiés soudanais depuis plus de 10 ans, 72 876 réfugiés centrafricains et 7 337 réfugiés nigérians. La région du Lac touchée par la crise nigériane accueille actuellement 114 911 personnes déplacées dont 106 177 déplacés internes, 8 414 retournés tchadiens et 320 ressortissants de pays tiers. En outre le pays accueille plus de 80 000 retournés tchadiens de la RCA, installés principalement dans les régions du sud et à N'djamena dans des sites ou villages d'accueil.

    L'insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition restent un problème chronique dans le pays, notamment dans la bande sahélienne. L'insécurité alimentaire touche environ 3,8 millions de personnes (environ 28% de la population totale) dont 2,8 millions ont besoin d’une assistance, parmi lesquelles plus d'un million sont en insécurité alimentaire sévère (source: cadre harmonisé mars 2016). La situation nutritionnelle est également préoccupante, avec des taux de malnutrition aigüe globale supérieurs à 15% (seuil d’urgence) dans 8 districts sanitaires sur 33, et des taux de malnutrition aigüe sévère supérieurs à 2% (seuil d’urgence) dans 15 districts sanitaires.

    Le pays fait également face à des catastrophes naturelles récurrentes et de plus en plus fréquentes (inondations, sécheresses, ravageurs de cultures) qui influent directement sur le niveau de vie des populations et exacerbent leurs vulnérabilités.

    La forte prévalence des maladies à potentiel épidémique telles que le choléra et la rougeole, ainsi que celle du paludisme, combinée à une faiblesse du système sanitaire, sont des causes de morbidité et de mortalité accentuées parmi la population, en particulier chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans. Le Tchad se classe 185e sur 188 pays sur l'Indice de Développement Humain (IDH 2015), avec quelques-uns des indicateurs sociaux les plus alarmants (espérance de vie de 51 ans, taux de mortalité maternelle de 860 décès pour 100 000 naissances, rapport EDS-MICS 2014-2015).


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Chad, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Mali, Mauritania, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, World

    Africa Weather Hazards

    1. Persistent, above average rainfall since July has led to excessively rainfall surpluses and floods that have damaged infrastructure, displaced populations, and caused fatalities in parts of Sudan, South Sudan, and Ethiopia.
    2. Below-average seasonal rainfall and persistent moisture deficits in the region have negatively impacted developing crops across parts of eastern Oromia and SNNPR in Ethiopia.
    3. There is a potential for increased number of locusts migrating from the Arabian Peninsula which may negatively impact cropping activities.
    4. Low and poorly distributed seasonal rainfall across parts of central Senegal have led to strengthening moisture deficits and deteriorating ground conditions.
    5. Heavy and frequent rain over the past several weeks has led to substantial rainfall surpluses and flooding along the Niger and Benue Rivers in Nigeria. Enhanced rainfall is forecast across much of West Africa during the next seven days, sustaining the risk for flooding into early September.

    Central America and the Caribbean Weather Hazards

    1. Below-average rainfall over the past several weeks has led to growing rainfall deficits and abnormal dryness throughout much of Haiti and neighboring western Dominican Republic. Only light to locally moderate rain is forecast over Hispaniola during the next week, which could worsen the situation on the ground.
    2. Poorly-distributed Primera (May-August) seasonal rainfall has led to moderate to large moisture deficits and stressed crops across portions of east-central Honduras, central Nicaragua, and the Pacific North region of Costa Rica. Heavy rain is forecast along the Pacific Basin of Central America during the next week, which should help alleviate dryness and help cropping activities for the upcoming growing cycle.
    3. Abundant rain during the past week triggered flooding over local areas of Choluteca, Tegucigalpa, and El Paraiso department of southeastern Honduras. Heavy rain is forecast to continue during the next week, increasing risks for flooding and landslides.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe


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    Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, occupied Palestinian territory, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, World

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    This report draws on some recent operational experiences of the ICRC to describe the theory and practice of the ICRC’s approach to humanitarian assistance in protracted conflict. The ICRC spends about two thirds of its budget on protracted conflicts. The average length of time the ICRC has been present in the countries hosting its ten largest operations is more than 36 years. Protracted conflicts are a major source of human suffering and a cause of protracted displacement, migration and development reversals.

    The report contributes to important humanitarian policy discussions on the reliefdevelopment relationship, the urbanization of humanitarian response, multi-year planning and humanitarian financing. Chapter 1 starts with theoretical and legal analysis of protracted conflict. Chapter 2 examines the damaging effects of protracted conflict on State and society. Chapter 3 describes the ICRC’s “combined approach” to short and long-term needs.Chapter 4 looks at key areas where the ICRC is determined to improve its performance and some important international policy changes that will help it do so.

    KEY MESSAGES IN THE REPORT

    Protracted conflicts are not new but there are key features that are specific to our times. Many wars in history have been long. The ICRC has routinely operated in protracted conflicts in the last 70 years but particular trends can be observed in protracted conflicts today. Many long conflicts are largely urban in nature and involve new forms of technology that influence tactics and communications differently. Today’s conflicts affect middleincome countries as much as poorer countries. They attract a large humanitarian sector and a more diverse, 24/7 global media sector. Today’s conflicts are also viewed by States and civil society in a much more conscious way through the lens of international law – notably, international humanitarian law (IHL), international human rights law and refugee law.

    Protracted conflicts are characterized by their longevity, intractability and mutability. Some are based on a single conflict. Others are a series of multiple conflicts. The parties to long conflicts typically fragment and mutate over time. Conflict often ebbs and flows unevenly across a country, with varying moments of intensity. A conflict may also be reframed with different goals over time and be internationalized in a variety of ways. Lack of respect for IHL is a major source of human suffering in protracted conflicts. Even when IHL is not violated in the conduct of hostilities the humanitarian consequences of these conflicts can be great because of widespread displacement, the cumulative impact on basic services and livelihoods over time, and the sharp increase in “war poor” populations.

    The humanitarian consequences of protracted conflict are severe and can be immediate and cumulative. People’s experience of a protracted conflict typically involves immediate direct suffering as a result of attacks, deprivation and displacement, and more indirect suffering due to the cumulative deterioration of basic services, life chances and livelihoods. People’s needs cut across many different sectors and extend over many years.Humanitarian action may respond to urgent need and long-term need, as long as it is humanitarian in purpose and impartial in nature. Protracted conflict is not a legal term in IHL. Nor does IHL differentiate between the concepts, in international policy, of relief, early recovery and development. Humanitarian action according to IHL transcends these categories and may include a range of activities to aid people’s survival, their means of survival and their dignity. The ICRC engages across this spectrum of activities in accordance with its fundamental principles and IHL.

    Today’s protracted conflicts create some new challenges for humanitarian action.
    This is especially the case in cities, where urban infrastructure and systems pose largescale technological and staffing problems for the maintenance of vital inter-connected services. The intensity and longevity of protracted conflicts also create greater expectations of sustainable and individualized services across a wide range of vulnerable groups. The absence of development investment makes it difficult to build strong local partnerships to ensure humanitarian continuity during and after conflict.

    The ICRC responds to needs in protracted conflict by implementing a “combined approach” that operates in the short and long terms to meet immediate needs and mitigate cumulative impact. This involves working with two timelines simultaneously – one that plans week to week, and another that thinks two to five years ahead. The ICRC works quickly to address immediate needs and also works deeply with regard to the various health, water, livelihood and protection systems that ensure people’s survival and dignity. Agility and proximity remain critical to the ICRC’s operational approach, which must be able to adapt to the fluidity of armed conflict. Staying close to affected people as their locations and situations change is essential. So, too, is a diverse “palette of activities” that enables the ICRC to remain relevant to people’s changing needs.

    The ICRC aims to improve its general approach in protracted conflicts in five ways.
    It will develop its multi-year approach to focus more on outcome goals in protection and assistance. It will increase its ability to absorb multi-year financing. It will concentrate on securing development holds against the development reversals of protracted conflict. It will seek partnerships that can ensure humanitarian continuity during and after conflict, and it will deepen its engagement with affected populations.


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